A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of banding or broadcasting fertilizer on yield and quality of turnip (Brassica rapa L. Rapifera group), sweetcorn (Zea mays var. rugosa Bonaf.), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group). Preplant fertilizer was applied broadcast before bedding, broadcast after bedding, or banded after bedding. Sidedress applications were broadcast or banded on the beds. Differences in plant size and vigor were noticed early in the season in the spring turnip crop, with the growth in the broadcast-and-bed treatment appearing superior. The yield at first harvest and total yield were lower for turnip grown with the bed-and-broadcast treatment. No differences in yield of cabbage or sweetcorn resulted from the treatments. Few differences in turnip stem-to-leaf ratio were noted due to fertilizer treatment. Few differences in yield due to sidedress method were noted with any of the crops. Analysis of soil samples in a grid pattern across the beds showed that the location of the fertilizer after the broadcast-and-bed treatment was similar to the placement of the banded fertilizer. Since broadcasting can be done with a faster, wider applicator, growers could reduce costs by broadcasting fertilizer and obtain yields that are at least equivalent to the yields obtained by banding the fertilizer.
R.L. Parish, R.P. Bracy and H.F. Morris Jr.
Richard E.C. Layne, Chin S. Tan, David M. Hunter and Robert A. Cline
Seven treatment combinations of irrigation and fertilizer were compared in a high-density (606 trees/ha) management system for peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Harrow Beauty/Bailey] on Fox sand in southwestern Ontario. Each treatment combination had an irrigation component (N = nonirrigated, D = drip irrigated, or M = microsprinkler irrigated) and a fertilizer placement component (B = banded fertilizer, L = low fertigation, or H = high fertigation). NB and DB are commonly used systems in Ontario, while the other five treatment combinations were experimental. Total soil water in the top 110 cm of soil was lowest under NB but was never at the permanent wilting point. Trunk cross-sectional area was largest under DH and DB, smallest under ML and NB, and intermediate for the other three treatment combinations. No symptoms of N or K deficiency or toxicity were noted for any of the fertilizer treatments. Leaf analyses in July and September indicated that most major and minor elements were in the adequate to slightly excess range. However, there were no significant treatment effects on leaf nutrient concentrations in July or September when averaged over the five years, except for Mg in July. There were large and significant year effects on leaf nutrient concentrations but no significant treatment × year interactions. During the first four cropping years, there were no significant treatment effects, averaged over years, for total yield, marketable yield, or cumulative yield efficiency; however, there were large year effects but no treatment × year interactions for these factors. There was no detectable yield advantage for D vs. M irrigation. B application of N and K promoted no higher yields than fertigation equivalent to the B rate or 50% of this rate. Fertigation of N and K during the first 4 years of this experiment did not provide a detectable yield advantage to warrant the added cost and labor associated with this system compared with the B applications of N and K.
D.G. Mortley, C.B. Smith and K.T. Demchak
The effects of fertilizer placement on growth and nutrient uptake of `Count II' tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were evaluated in a 3-year study. Fertilizer was applied broadcast at two rates or banded in two bands at two widths or in four bands, or applied in combinations of sidedressing or broadcasting with banding of N, P, and K at 56, 112, or 224 kg·ha-1 each. Total fruit yield for the 112 kg·ha-1 banded treatment was 24% higher than that for the same rate broadcast and similar to yield for 224 kg·ha-1 broadcast. Treatments involving combined placements, wider bands, or four bands produced yields similar to that for 112 kg·ha-1 banded, but the 56 kg·ha-1 banded with two 56 kg·ha-1 sidedressings had the highest yield. Leaf concentrations and plant contents of N, P, and K and percentage recovery of quantities applied were generally higher in treatments involving banding or sidedressing when compared to broadcasting. Leaf Mn was much higher in banded or sidedressed than for broadcast treatments but was lower when 112 kg·ha-1 was applied in four bands than in two. Only with Mg and Mn were leaf concentrations and plant contents highly correlated. With 112 kg·ha-1 banded, 31.2% of the N, 5.8% of the P, and 44.7% of the K applied were taken up, compared to 12.5%, 2.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, for double this rate broadcast.
Richard E.C. Layne, Chin S. Tan, David M. Hunter and Robert A. Cline
Seven high-density (606 trees/ha) management systems for peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Harrow Beauty/Bailey] were compared on Fox sand in southwestern Ontario. Each system had an irrigation component (N = none D = drip, M = microsprinkler) and a fertilizer placement component (B = banded, L= low-rate fertigation, H = high rate fertigation). NB (nonirrigated, banded fertilizer) and DB (drip-irrigated) are commonly used systems in Ontario, while the other five treatment combinations were experimental. Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) was generally greatest for DH and DB systems, smallest for ML and NB systems, and intermediate for the other three. No symptoms of N or K deficiency or excess were noted for any of the fertilizer treatments. The seven management systems each had similar cumulative yield efficiencies for the first 4 cropping years However, total marketable yields for the 4 years were highest for MB (58.7 t·ha–1), followed in descending order by DB (56.8 t·ha–1), DH (56.6 t·ha–1), MH (53.9 t·ha–1), DL (50.6 t·ha–1), ML (49.8 t·ha–1), and NB (47.5 t·ha–1). Each of the irrigated treatments outyielded the nonirrigated check (NB) and ranged from 4.8% to 23.6%. Only one of the irrigated treatments (MB) outyielded the irrigated check (DB), and by only 3.3%. There was no clear advantage for either the drip or microsprinkler system of irrigation. Banded application of N and K appeared to promote higher yields than by fertigation equivalent to the banded rate, while yields at the low rate of fertigation were lower than for either the high rate of fertigation or the banded application. It appeared that banded fertilizer combined with either microsprinkler (MB) or drip irrigation DB provided the most-effective of the management systems in the first 4 cropping years.
Wilton P. Cook and Douglas C. Sanders
The effects of fertilizer placement and soil moisture level on soil N movement, uptake, and use by tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) grown with drip irrigation and plastic mulch were evaluated at two locations on two types of sandy soils. Broadcast or band fertilizer placement had no effect on fruit size, fruit number, or total yield. Fruit size was increased at one location, and the incidence of blossom-end rot was decreased by increased frequency of irrigation. Nitrate-N distribution within the bed was not affected by initial N placement. In the soil with a rapid infiltration rate, NO3-N levels in the center of the bed were always low, with highest concentration observed in the areas of the bed most distant from the drip tube. In the soil with the slower infiltration rate, NO3-N concentrations were more uniform throughout the bed, with highest concentrations in the bed center: Increasing soil moisture levels (–20 kPa vs. –30 kPa) resulted in increased leaching and reduced NO3-N concentration throughout the bed. Foliage N concentration was not affected by N placement, but decreased seasonally. Total N uptake by the above-ground portion of the plants was not affected by fertilizer placement or soil moisture level.
Seema Sah, Stewart Reed, Krishnaswamy Jayachandran, Christopher Dunn and Jack B. Fisher
Since arbuscular–mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are aerobic, symbiosis was not considered significant under flooded conditions. However, AM colonization of wetland plants is now believed more common than previously thought. In the humid tropics, storms that result in standing water for 24 hours or less are common. Short-term floods, especially on sandy soils, may leach banded fertilizer, reducing uptake efficiency. Crops planted in flood prone areas are not normally enhanced with mycorrhizal mixes. However, mycorrhizal associations tolerant to wet conditions may improve nutrient uptake as plants recover from short-term flooding. Greenhouse studies were initiated to determine the effects of frequent short-term floods (two to four events) on mycorrhizal colonization and subsequent development in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris
Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants. Flooding produced no obvious long-term physical effects on plant shoots. In the first study, flooding did not affect survival of colonies established before the first flood event. Percent root colonization in flooded vs. nonflooded treatments was not significantly different at either 31 or 50 days after planting (DAP). As root length increased there was a concomitant increase in colonization so that percent colonization remained approximately the same in both flooded and nonflooded treatments. In the second study, three weekly floods beginning 13 DAP (cotyledon leaf open only) did not inhibit initial mycorrhizal colonization. Mycorrhizal associations should form with snap bean under conditions subject to short-term flooding. Additional research is needed to determine the efficacy of different mycorrhizal mixes under short-term flooded conditions in the field.
N. M. El-Hout
Band placement has been recognized as an effective strategy for improving P fertilizer-use efficiency on Histosols, which are often characterized as environmentally sensitive wetlands, and for reducing P loading of drainage waters from these soils. Recent studies indicate that crisphead lettuce (Lacruca sativa L.) yields can be optimized with a band-P rate one-third of that required with broadcast applications. However, such findings have not been verified in large production plots. Five field experiments were conducted between 1991 and 1993 to evaluate the response of crisphead lettuce produced commercially on Histosols to band P rates. Liquid P fertilizers were placed in lo-cm-wide strips, 8.5-cm below the seed at planting in rates ranging from 0 to 224 kg P ha-1. Lettuce yields increased significantly with P rate in all experiments. Irrespective of initial soil-test-P index, lettuce yields within each experiment were maximized with a band rate 54% of that required in a broadcast. The pooled data for all experiments showed a similar trend. These findings provided a means of making alternative band fertilizer recommendations by utilizing an existing preplant broadcast soil test.
M.C. Palada, W. M. Cole, S.M.A Crossman, J.E. Rakocy and J.A. Kowalski
Using fish culture water and sludge may benefit vegetable production by reducing the need for high-quality irrigation water in areas where water is a limiting resource for agriculture. Fish water and sludge contains nutrients, thereby reducing the need for chemical fertilizers. A study was conducted to integrate fish (tilapia) culture with field production of Pak choi (Brassica rapa L. Chinensis). Water from tilapia culture tanks from which solids were removed (SR) and from tanks with no solid removal (NR) were applied to pak choi 2 to 3 times weekly through a drip system. These treatments were compared with sludge (FS) removed from culture tanks using three methods of irrigation. Conventional methods of fertigation (F) and band fertilizer (B) application were included as control treatments. The trial was conducted for 2 seasons. In the first season, pak choi applied with (FS) produced total yields ranging from 21 to 26 t·ha–l. Pak choi applied with fish water from tanks with (SR) and (NR) produced yields of 19 and 20 t·ha–l, respectively. Pak choi grown with (F) and (B) applications yielded 21 and 20 t·ha–l, respectively. There were no significant yield differences between the (FS) treated and (F) plots. Yield from (FS) treatment was significantly higher than all other treatments except (F). Similar results were obtained during the second season, but total yields from various treatments were 50% higher than the first season. Fish culture water and sludge are therefore good alternative sources of irrigation and fertilizer for pak choi.
Monica Ozores-Hampton, Eric Simonne, Fritz Roka, Kelly Morgan, Steven Sargent, Crystal Snodgrass and Eugene McAvoy
the soil on the bed shoulders (banded fertilizer). This method proposed by the grower cooperator ensured that each plant (transplants were set later at a within-row spacing of 60 cm) was receiving exactly the prescribed fertilizer treatment. The
David R. Bryla
and S may be lost by leaching, especially when followed by heavy rains. More fertilizer is required to obtain equivalent yields in row crops than is needed with banding. Banding. Banded fertilizers are placed in a concentrated area along the plant row