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R.L. Parish, R.P. Bracy, and H.F. Morris Jr.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of banding or broadcasting fertilizer on yield and quality of turnip (Brassica rapa L. Rapifera group), sweetcorn (Zea mays var. rugosa Bonaf.), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group). Preplant fertilizer was applied broadcast before bedding, broadcast after bedding, or banded after bedding. Sidedress applications were broadcast or banded on the beds. Differences in plant size and vigor were noticed early in the season in the spring turnip crop, with the growth in the broadcast-and-bed treatment appearing superior. The yield at first harvest and total yield were lower for turnip grown with the bed-and-broadcast treatment. No differences in yield of cabbage or sweetcorn resulted from the treatments. Few differences in turnip stem-to-leaf ratio were noted due to fertilizer treatment. Few differences in yield due to sidedress method were noted with any of the crops. Analysis of soil samples in a grid pattern across the beds showed that the location of the fertilizer after the broadcast-and-bed treatment was similar to the placement of the banded fertilizer. Since broadcasting can be done with a faster, wider applicator, growers could reduce costs by broadcasting fertilizer and obtain yields that are at least equivalent to the yields obtained by banding the fertilizer.

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Cyrus Samimy and James N. Cummins

We thank C.S.'s 14-year-old son, Sawson, for drawing the 6PGD isozyme banding patterns by computer. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be

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Bruce W. Wood

options include 1) broadcasting, 2) banding, or 3) trenching. Broadcast application (over the entire orchard floor or only beneath the tree canopy) typically requires 23 to 114 kg (50 to 250 lbs) Zn sulfate per acre; in addition, the first 2 to 3 years

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Xinhua Yin, Jinhe Bai, and Clark F. Seavert

( Ericson, 1993 ). Another alternate N and P fertilizer management is band placement. Band placement can also deliver fertilizer down into the active root zone in bands and reduce the contact of fertilizer with soil, but requires a narrower, more controlled

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Michael W. Smith and Becky S. Cheary

high clay content. Wood et al. (2010) demonstrated that banding K within the root zone near a drip irrigation source resulted in substantial K uptake by trees. Worley (1994) conducted a 20-year study to establish the minimum pecan leaf K

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Michael F. Polozola II, Daniel E. Wells, J. Raymond Kessler, Wheeler G. Foshee, Amy N. Wright, and Bryan S. Wilkins

indicated that banded applications of P increase foliar P when applied annually at the rate of 127.3 kg·ha −1 (113.6 lb/ac) P ( Smith and Cheary, 2013 ). Banded P applications increased leaf P concentrations, ameliorated foliar deficiency symptoms, and

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, T. Casey Barickman, and Robert C. Morrow

( Morrow, 2008 ). LEDs now provide the ability to measure impacts of narrow-band wavelengths of light on nutritional values of a variety of specialty crops such as chili pepper [ Capsicum annuum ( Gangadhar et al., 2012 )], cucumber [ Cucumis sativus

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C.A. Sanchez, S. Swanson, and P.S. Porter

Five field experiments were conducted from 1986 to 1989 to compare broadcast and band P fertilization of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) on Histosols. Rates of P were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 300 kg P/ha applied broadcast or banded. Broadcast P was surface-applied and disked into the soil 1 day before bedding and planting. Banded P was placed in strips 8 cm wide, 5 cm below the lettuce seeds at planting. Lettuce yields were significantly(P < 0.01) increased by P rate in all experiments. However, significant rate-by -placement interactions indicated that response of lettuce to P varied by placement. Lettuce yields were generally optimized with a band P rate one-third of that required with broadcast placement. Analysis of soil samples collected in the lettuce bed after fertilization indicated that banded P increased available P in the lettuce root zone compared to broadcast fertilization. Lettuce leaf P concentration increased with P rate and generally was greater when P was banded. The critical concentration of P in lettuce leaf tissue at the six- to eight-leaf stage was 0.37%. Banding P fertilizer did not reduce the availability of other essential nutrients, as indicated by tissue analysis.

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Frank A. Buffone and Don R. La Bonte

Chlorotic Leaf Distortion (CLD) is a common disease of sweetpotato caused by Fusarium lateritium. This fungus is unique among Fusarium species in that it grows on the epidermis of leaves and shoot tips of sweetpotato. Fusarium lateritium appears as a white epiphytic material and under bright sunlight causes leaf chlorosis. When cloudy weather persists for several days, all symptoms disappear.

Researchers who use RAPD to examine banding patterns of sweetpotato DNA assume that foreign DNA present in the cTAB extract is quantitatively low and will not appreciably amplify and appear as bands. In this study we found the modified cTAB procedure used to amplify sweetpotato DNA also amplifies DNA of Fusarium lateritium cultures. DNA banding patterns of infected leaves was compared with those free of the disease. No differences in banding patterns were observed in this preliminary study.

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Joseph M. Kemble and Elizabeth A. Guertal

In 1994, a study was conducted in Crossville, Ala., to determine if differences in leaf P concentration and crop yield occurred when P was applied as either a broadcast or banded treatment. Phosphorus (0, 34, 67, 101, and 134 kg·ha–1) was banded (2 × 2) or broadcast applied and incorporated before planting. Other nutrients were applied based on current recommendations and soil testing. As level of P increased from 0 to 134 kg·ha–1, fresh weight of harvested ears increased quadratically. There was no difference in fresh weight of harvested ears between banding and broadcasting. Yields were not maximized within the range of applied P, although it seems that yield reaches a plateau near the highest rate of applied P. Percent of P in corn ear leaves did not differ among treatments. There was no difference in P leaf concentrations between the banded and broadcast treatments, indicating that response in yield occurred due to rate of P application, not method.