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G.H. Neilsen, J. Beulah, E.J. Hogue and R. Utkhede

The effects of various nonfumigant planting-hole treatments on growth and yield of apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees were measured during the first 3 years after planting. Eight orchards diagnosed as having a replant problem were monitored. First-year shoot growth, the number of blossoms in the second year (inmost orchards), and first-year trunk cross-sectional area increment (TCAI) in 50% of test orchards were increased by monoammonium phosphate (MAP) fertilizer+ peat, MAP+ mancozeb, or MAP + peat + a bacterial antagonist. By the end of year 3, TCAI generally was not affected by treatments, but treatments resulted in more blossoms by the third season in two of seven orchards that blossomed in the second season. Cumulative yield after 3 years increased significantly in only three orchards, with the best treatment, MAP+ peat, resulting in cost recovery in only one orchard. Inadequate K or Cu nutrition may have reduced growth in some of the orchards, which were characterized by a wide range in yields, independent of planting-hole treatment.

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James L. Green, R.G. Linderman, B. Blackburn and K.A. Smith

Verticle gradients of moisture, salinity, specific fertilizer ions, and pH in the root zone in the closed, insulated pallet system (CIPS) are relatively stable compared with those in the open container system (OCS). Establishment of the VA mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices and maintenance of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae were greater in CIPS than in control OCS. In CIPS, percent corn root length colonized by G. intraradices was greatest in roots in the top stratum of the root medium. Colonization was significantly greater in copper-coated root-containment pouches. Population maintenance in CIPS of T. harzianum, initially uniformly inoculated throughout the root medium, was highest in the top stratum of the root medium where K+ and \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} concentrations were highest. Efficacy of S. carpocapsae in parasitizing Galleria mellonella larvae, while greater in CIPS, was significantly related to host plant in CIPS but not in OCS. Inoculation with bacterial antagonists Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Serratia plymuthica significantly increased plant growth in CIPS, but not in OCS. Phytophthora cinnomomi root rot infection readily occurred in inoculated plants, but did not spread to noninoculated plants in CIPS when roots were contained within plant pouches. Because of the stability of the root zone parameters and the lack of leaching-dilution of exudates, volatiles, and other materials from the root zone, CIPS is an excellent system for evaluating effects of microorganism and other factors on root growth and development.

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Joseph J. Rothleutner, Ryan N. Contreras, Virginia O. Stockwell and James S. Owen

, T.J. Pusey, P.L. 2011 Cougarblight 2010, a significant update of the Cougarblight fire blight infection risk model. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 896:331–336 Stockwell, V.O. Johnson, K. Sugar, D. Loper, J. 2011 Mechanistically compatible mixtures of bacterial

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Jacqueline Joshua and Margaret T. Mmbaga

. (2002) , and Heydari and Pessarakli (2010) that bacterial antagonists inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens by excreting antifungal metabolites, such as antibiotics, toxins, and bio-surfactants, including volatiles. The diffusion of the compounds to