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Raymond A. Cloyd, Cindy L. Galle, Stephen R. Keith and Kenneth E. Kemp

azoxystrobin (Heritage; Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC), kresoxim-methyl (Cygnus; BASF Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC), and trifloxystrobin (Compass; OHP, Inc., Mainland, PA) are considered METIs with activity on complex III in the mitochondria of

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Brian A. Kahn, John P. Damicone and Raymond Joe Schatzer

Benomyl was compared with copper hydroxide, azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, acibenzolar-S-methyl, and basic copper sulfate for efficacy of cercospora leaf spot [incited by Cercospora brassicicola P. Henn] management on turnip greens [Brassica rapa L. var. (DC.) Metzg. utilis]. Treatments included various application times and were evaluated in three field experiments over 2 years. The few yield effects that occurred were not consistent between years. Copper hydroxide and basic copper sulfate were not useful alternatives to benomyl due to a combination of phytotoxicity symptoms and ineffective disease control. Inconsistent results were observed with acibenzolar-S-methyl. A single, early application of tebuconazole greatly reduced cercospora leaf spot severity relative to the control in both years. Tebuconazole may be a good alternative to benomyl if a label can be obtained. Multiple (at least two) applications of azoxystrobin may be needed to achieve the same degree of cercospora leaf spot control as would result from a single properly timed application of benomyl. Although azoxystrobin is now labeled for turnip greens, grower costs will likely increase as a result of benomyl being discontinued. Chemical names used: methyl-1-[(butylamino)carbonyl]-H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate (benomyl); methyl (E)-2-{2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yloxy]phenyl}-3-methoxyacrylate (azoxystrobin); alpha-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-alpha-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (tebuconazole); 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid-S-methyl-ester (acibenzolar-S-methyl).

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W.P. Cowgill Jr., M.H. Maletta, T. Manning, W.H. Tietjen, S.A. Johnston and P.J. Nitzsche

Research trials, conducted from 1991 to 1998, evaluated early blight forecasting systems for use in fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) production in northern New Jersey. Initial trials focused on determining which of three forecast systems—NJ-FAST, CU-FAST, TOM-CAST—would optimize fungicide use. The TOM-CAST system generated fungicide application schedules that reduced foliar disease rating compared to the untreated check and, in 1 year, controlled diseases as well as a weekly schedule with 3 rather than 14 applications. TOM-CAST was easier to use than NJ-FAST or CU-FAST because it required fewer weather data inputs and simpler forecast calculations. Subsequent trials evaluated and defined thresholds for using TOM-CAST in northern New Jersey and evaluated the efficacy of several fungicides with TOM-CAST. Of the six TOM-CAST modifications evaluated, TOM-CAST beginning fungicide applications at 25 cumulative dew severity values (dew SV) and reapplying fungicide at 15 or 25 cumulative dew SV reduced disease rating as much as a weekly schedule in 1995 and 1996 and with fewer applications. After 5 years of trials, decision thresholds for using TOM-CAST in northern New Jersey were chosen and this new version of the forecast system designated NJ-TOM-CAST. It was verified in 1997 and 1998 and shown to generate fungicide application schedules that reduced foliar disease rating compared to the untreated check in both years and as much as the weekly schedule in one year. From 1995 through 1998, the conservative TOM-CAST schedules, TOM-CAST 25-15 or NJ-TOM-CAST, required on average 6 fungicide applications per year compared to weekly schedules that required on average 15 applications per year. In 1996, marketable yield was increased with TOM-CAST scheduled treatment compared to the untreated check and was the same as or greater than yield with weekly treatment. In the other 3 years, fungicide applications, whether applied on a calendar-based or TOM-CAST-based schedule, did not increase marketable yields compared to the untreated check. Fungicides shown to be effective when used with NJ-TOM-CAST schedules included both low cost and new chemistry materials. Copper fungicides, some of which are allowed in organic crop production, did not consistently control fungal diseases when applied on the NJ-TOM-CAST schedule. Applying fungicides on the NJ-TOM-CAST schedule instead of calendar-based schedules did not increase bacterial disease severity. Powdery mildew damage was more severe with NJ-TOM-CAST-scheduled applications than weekly applications in 1 year, affirming the importance of disease monitoring in the field when using NJ-TOM-CAST. By 2000, through a cooperative effort of Rutgers Cooperative Extension and SkyBit, Inc. (Boalsburg, Pa.), a commercial weather service, NJ-TOM-CAST was available to northern New Jersey tomato growers by subscription.

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Mark A. Ritenour, Robert R. Pelosi, Michael S. Burton, Eddie W. Stover, Huating Dou and T. Gregory McCollum

Studies were conducted between November 1999 and April 2003 to evaluate the effectiveness of compounds applied preharvest for reducing postharvest decay on many types of fresh citrus (Citrus spp.) fruit. Commercially mature fruit were harvested two different times after the compounds were applied, degreened when necessary, washed, waxed (without fungicide), and then stored at 50 °F (10.0 °C) with 90% relative humidity. Compared to control (unsprayed) fruit, preharvest application of benomyl or thiophanate-methyl resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) less decay of citrus fruit after storage in nine out of ten experiments, often reducing decay by about half. In one experiment, pyraclostrobin and phosphorous acid also significantly decreased total decay by 29% and 36%, respectively, after storage compared to the control. Only benomyl and thiophanate-methyl significantly reduced stem-end rot (SER; primarily Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri) after storage, with an average of 65% less decay compared to the control. Though benomyl significantly reduced anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in two of four tests with substantial (>20%) infection and phosphorous acid significantly reduced it once, thiophanate-methyl did not significantly reduce the incidence of anthracnose postharvest. The data suggests that preharvest application of thiophanate-methyl may reduce postharvest SER and total decay similar to preharvest benomyl treatments.

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Guirong Zhang, Mohammad Babadoost, Alan De Young, Eric T. Johnson and David A. Schisler

.g., monopotassium and dipotassium salts of phosphorus acid, potassium phosphite, and azoxystrobin) have been used with varying levels of success managing downy mildew ( Gilardi et al., 2013 ; Homa et al., 2014 ; Patel et al., 2016 ; Pintore et al., 2016

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Kent E. Cushman, William B. Evans, David M. Ingram, Patrick D. Gerard, R. Allen Straw, Craig H. Canaday, Jim E. Wyatt and Michael M. Kenty

. All fungicide treatments received azoxystrobin (Quadris; Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., Greensboro, N.C.) in rotation with chlorothalonil (Equus 720; Griffin L.L.C., DuPont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, Del.) each in a tap water solution

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Kiersten A. Wise, Robert A. Henson and Carl A. Bradley

) fungicides azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin were identified in North Dakota ( Wise et al., 2009 ). Long-range dispersal of A. rabiei can occur through infected chickpea seed ( Kaiser, 1997 ). It has been hypothesized that A. rabiei was likely first

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Jiaqi Yan, Megan M. Dewdney, Pamela D. Roberts and Mark A. Ritenour

right after harvest. Fungicides used in this experiment were formulated products of azoxystrobin, fludioxonil, imazalil, thiabendazole, pyrimethanil, and phosphorous acid. All the fungicides were used at commercially recommended concentrations, based on

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Oleg Daugovish, Hai Su and W. Douglas Gubler

.05. Disease incidence in plants treated with the premixture of cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch®; Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC), the premixture of boscalid + pyraclostrobin (Pristine®; BASF, Florham Park, NJ), and azoxystrobin (Quadris®, Syngenta

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Kaitlin Barrios, Carrie Knott and James Geaghan

) and azoxystrobin (Abound; Syngenta) were applied as surface spray fungicides with a 2.5-pt hand sprayer (Flo-Master model 4OTS; Root-Lowell Manufacturing Co., Lowell, MI). To ensure an even fungicide application, a 100 mL solution was prepared; however