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Open access

A. Liptay and C. S. Tan

Abstract

Germination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds in petri dishes at various levels of water stress was comparable, except under conditions of severe stress when a PEG pretreatment improved final percentage germination and enhanced the onset and rate of germination. At intermediate or high watering levels, PEG-pretreated seeds germinated more rapidly than untreated seeds, but final germination was not altered by PEG. Germination of seeds in soil, under controlled laboratory conditions, was similar to that in petri dishes except under the driest conditions (5% ASM) when little emergence occurred whether the seeds were pretreated or not. A majority of the seeds which failed to germinate after 2 weeks under dry soil conditions were still viable, since subsequently they could be induced to germinate by moistening the soil to 100% ASM. Water requirement of tomato seeds for optimal rate of germination was cultivar dependent; PI-341988 seeds germinated well at 60% ASM or greater, whereas ST-24 required 100% ASM for best germination.

Open access

C. S. Tan and R. E. C. Layne

Abstract

A 2-year study was made of 2 methods of scheduling irrigation of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Harken/Siberian C). In each year, irrigation schedules necessary to prevent the available soil moisture (ASM) from falling below 50% level in the top 30 cm were essentially the same, whether determined from direct measurement of soil moisture or predicted from a simplified Priestley and Taylor évapotranspiration model.

Free access

Huating Dou, Peter Petracek, Mohamed Ismail, Ashok Alva, and David Calvert

Effects of N, K, and water relation on the incidence and severity of postharvest pitting in white grapefruit were evaluated in two field experiments. In the first experiment, a factorial combination of 3 N (56, 168, and 336 kg·ha–1) and 3 K (52, 156, and 312 kg·ha–1) rates were used with three broadcast applications per year. In the second experiment, there were two irrigation regimes (at 30% and 60% depletion of available soil moisture, ASM, content) with three subtreatments of variable N and K rates (Kg·ha–1) at 56: 52; 112: 104, and 336: 312 kg·ha–1. The fruit were harvested three times each season, waxed with shellac wax, and stored at 70°F for evaluation of pitting. The pitting incidence was lower at the optimal N and K rates than that at the low or high rates. The irrigation at 30% ASM significantly reduced pitting incidence. The higher incidence of pitting was found in an area in the grove with higher water table. This study suggested that effects of water may play an important role on peel physiology and pitting.

Open access

Charles A. Brun, J. Thomas Raese, and Edward A. Stahly

Abstract

Mature bearing pear [Pyrus communis L. ‘Beurre d’Anjou’ (‘Anjou’)] trees in an arid climate were irrigated weekly at 125% of pan evaporation (wet), biweekly at 100% of pan evaporation (normal), or irrigated only twice (dry) during the summer (1980, 1981), and were fertilized with and without 0.9 kg of supplemental N. Prior to final fruit harvest in 1981, depletion of available soil moisture (ASM) averaged 10%, 16.7%, and 89% for the wet, normal, and dry treatments, respectively. Mid-day leaf water potential (ψL) was correlated with the level of ASM only on bright days of high vapor pressure deficit. Stomatal conductance (κs) and transpirational flux density (F) of dry treatment leaves was lower than that of either wet or normal treatment leaves ψL exceeded −1.4 to −1.7 MPa. Resistance to vapor (water) transport (Rν) of fruit was independent of irrigation regime. Terminal buds had set on shoots from all 3 irrigation regimes at 58 days after full bloom (AFB) in 1981, but resumed growth on normal and wet treatment shoots at 87 days AFB. On 7 of 10 sampling dates during 1981, dry treatment fruit weighed less than normal or wet treatment fruit.

Open access

R. E. C. Layne, C. S. Tan, and J. M. Fulton

Abstract

An experimental peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch cv. Harken/Siberian C) orchard was planted on Fox sand in 1973 at 266, 358 and 536 trees/ha. The plots were either not irrigated or irrigated at a frequency necessary to prevent the available soil moisture (ASM) from falling below 25 or 50%. Irrigation stimulated tree growth in the earlier but not in the later years of the experiment. Growth was reduced by an increase in tree density especially in the later years at the highest density. Only in 50% ASM plots was growth not affected by high tree density. Irrigation (50% ASM) increased cumulative, marketable yields in the first 5 years of production by up to 9.7% while tree density (536 trees/ha) increased similar yields by up to 74.6% without irrigation and up to 99.5% with irrigation (50% ASM + 536 tree/ha). Irrigation consistently improved the proportion of large and medium-sized fruit while reducing the proportion of small, unmarketable fruit. Tree density had a smaller and less consistent influence on fruit size. Neither irrigation nor tree density adversely affected split pits, raw product fruit quality, cold hardiness or canker (Leucostoma spp.) susceptiblity. There were no significant interactions of irrigation and density treatments in any year, indicating that each treatment might be used to advantage without adversely affecting the other, at least in the first 7 years of growth and first 5 years of production.

Free access

Ronald Voss, Marita Cantwell, Blaine Hanson, Donald May, and Robert Rice

Garlic is a cool-season vegetable crop with a long growing season. The potential nutrient and water needs are high. Irrigation and fertilization trials were conducted in the San Joaquin Valley in varying weather and different soils. Objectives were to relate fertilizer and irrigation management to garlic yield and to the efficiency of water and fertilizer use;to develop crop coefficients relating crop ET to reference crop ET; to relate postharvest quality to water nutrient management; and to determine if slow-release nitrogen fertilizers are as effective as more soluble forms. N, P, and K rates and timing of applications were applied. Furrow irrigation variables included calendar timing, cutoff date of last irrigation, irrigation at different available soil moisture (ASM) depletion, and irrigation based on evapotranspiration. A line source sprinkler irrigation was also conducted. Response to fertilizer nitrogen and to irrigation were dependent on soil type and depth. Response in heavy, deep soil was poor; response in lighter texture and shallower soil was much greater. Garlic extracted water and nutrients to depths greater than 120 cm and suffered no yield loss at high ASM depletion (50%) in deep, heavy soil. In shallow or lighter texture soil, extraction was limited to 60 cm, with highest yields when irrigated at 25% ASM depletion. Yield and quality of garlic were affected by irrigation cutoff date. Nitrogen response varied from ≈100 to more than 300 kg/ha. Slow-release nitrogen fertilizers were effective, but not economical. Little or no response to P or K fertilizer was measured in these experiments. Effects of excessive fertilizer rates on postharvest quality was variable.