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Brandon M. Miller and William R. Graves

, are considered important for posttransplant establishment and survival ( Schultz and Thompson, 1990 ). Initiation of lateral roots is stimulated by auxin and other growth regulators ( Esau, 1965 ). Plant growth regulators have been used with other

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Ying Gao, Hao Liu and Dong Pei

on morphology is easy, but the relationship between the morphology and physiology of walnut catkins has not been established. Auxin is an essential hormone that has been implicated in many aspects of plant growth and development ( Woodward and Barrel

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Ji-Yu Zhang, Zhong-Ren Guo, Rui Zhang, Yong-Rong Li, Lin Cao, You-Wang Liang and Li-Bin Huang

with varying concentrations of selected auxins and different combinations of media and air temperatures. Materials and methods Plant materials. Pecan seeds were harvested at maturity in Oct. 2012 and planted in Feb. 2013 in a greenhouse at the Nanjing

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Eugene K. Blythe and Jeff L. Sibley

is preferred as cutting material ( Berry, 1994 ). Auxin treatment has traditionally been recommended and used in commercial propagation for rooting cuttings. Knight et al. (1993) rooted stem cuttings of ‘Dwarf Burford’ holly prepared from dormant

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V. Tuli

3-Methyleneoxindole (MO), a metabolite of the plant auxin 1- H-indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is a potent sulfhydryl reagent that can profoundly affect bacterial growth and metabolism. For investigative purposes, MO is obtained from the degradation of 3-bromooxindole-3-acetic acid (3-Br-lAA) in aqueous media. Alternatively, it can be prepared from the riboflavin-catalyzed photooxidation of IAA. My earlier claims that MO possesses auxin activity were refuted by independent investigators either because the results could not be reproduced when 3-Br-IAA was used, or the results were ascribed to contamination with residual IAA if MO obtained from photooxidation was used. Recent investigations indicate that, contrary to previous assumptions, the quantitative degradation of 3-Br-lAA resulting in the formation of MO is not instantaneous; depending on the purity of 3-Br-lAA, it may take several hours to several days to reach completion. Furthermore, aqueous solutions of MO ≥0.1 mm are rapidly polymerized, thus causing a loss of biological activity. These findings may explain why MO that is derived from 3-Br-lAA often fails to produce auxin action. Ultrapure MO, obtained from either 3-Br-IAA or photooxidation, is 50- to 1000-fold as effective as IAA in the straight growth assay, induction of xylogenesis in parenchymatous tissue, and rooting of explants in tissue culture.

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Eugene K. Blythe

requirement of an auxin treatment to promote rooting of the cuttings has not been noted. Comparing rooting of softwood and hardwood cuttings of confederate rose during the winter, spring, and monsoon seasons in India, Pandey and Vaish (1990) determined that

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Catarina P. Carvalho, Alejandra Salvador, Pilar Navarro, Adela Monterde and Jose M. Martínez-Jávega

exposure to ethylene must be adequate using optimum conditions of temperature, ethylene concentration, humidity, and air renewal ( Cuquerella et al., 2004 ). The synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a plant growth regulator that has

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Eugene K. Blythe and Jeff L. Sibley

A variety of methods may be used for applying auxin to stem cuttings with the basal quick-dip and the powder application methods being the most common in commercial propagation as a result of their speed and ease of practice ( Blythe et al., 2007

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Eugene K. Blythe and Jeff L. Sibley

) hardiness zones 5b to 8a ( Gilman, 1999 ). Plants are grown primarily for their form and foliage; fruit is rarely produced ( Gilman, 1999 ). Heat can be a limiting factor in nursery production of this crop ( Berry, 1994 ). An auxin treatment is typically

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Takahiro Tezuka, Masashi Harada, Masahumi Johkan, Satoshi Yamasaki, Hideyuki Tanaka and Masayuki Oda

of PGRs in the culture medium; relatively high levels of cytokinin promote shoot formation, whereas high levels of auxin promote rooting, and intermediate levels induce callus formation ( Thorpe, 2007 ). In CDM, adventitious shoots are likely to be