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Jean-Pierre Privé, J.A. Sullivan, J.T.A. Proctor and O.B. Allen

The influence of genotype x environment interactions on the performance of `Autumn Bliss' `Heritage' and `Redwing' primocane-fruiting (PF) red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars was studied at six sites across Ontario and Quebec during 1989 and 1990. Cultivar × location × year interactions were found for most vegetative and reproductive components analyzed. `Autumn Bliss' had the most consistent performance of the three cultivars in all location/year combinations, while `Redwing' varied greatly between environments. `Heritage' was always the latest-bearing of the three cultivars and failed to achieve its maximum yield potential in many of the northern locations.

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Jean-Pierre Privé, J.A. Sullivan, J.T.A. Proctor and O.B. Allen

Climatic elements (solar radiation, daylength, water supply, growing degree days (GDD), corn heat units (CHU), soil, and air temperatures) were monitored to determine which elements could account for the variability in yield of primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars. The climatic elements were classed as either having a major or minor influence on the vegetative and reproductive components, based on the frequency of the significance of the multiple regression coefficients. Soil temperature and water supply had a major influence, while daylength, solar radiation, and aboveground temperature (i.e., air, GDD, or CHU) had a lesser influence on these components. Soil temperature had the largest influence during April and May, while water supply was equally influential at all times during the season. Air temperature and solar radiation had their largest influence during the period of flower initiation and development (i.e., June and July), while daylength was most influential from June to October. Berry count, weight, and yield had the highest frequency of associations among the climatic elements, indicating the complexity of the association between these yield components and climate. Total number of nodes/cane, length of the fruiting section/cane, and the harvest period showed the fewest number of associations. Not all cultivars responded similarly to changes in their yield components. `Autumn Bliss' was less sensitive to climatic variation than either `Heritage' or `Redwing'. When `Redwing' was the anomaly, it was usually related to air or soil temperatures.

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Jean-Pierre Privé, J.A. Sullivan and J.T.A. Proctor

Leaf removal, cane girdling, and 14C translocation patterns were used to study source-sink relationships of primocane-fruiting (PF) red raspberries. Although the leaves in the reproductive zone were most important for vegetative and reproductive development, compensatory effects between the cane leaves were evident. When 14C translocation was studied in the reproductive portion of the cane, the lateral closest to the 14C-treated leaf was the major sink for carbohydrate from that leaf, independent of leaf position or reproductive development. Thereafter, partitioning to leaves and/or flowers or fruits above the 14C-treated leaf was related to leaf phyllotaxy 75% of the time.

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David C. Percival, J.T.A. Proctor and J.A. Sullivan

Field experiments including supplementary trickle irrigation (IR), IRT-76 plastic film (PF), and straw mulch (STR) treatments were conducted during 1993 and 1994 to determine the influence of root-zone temperature and soil moisture status on carbon assimilation and dry mass distribution, and soil and plant nutrient content, during the establishment of Rubus idaeus L. `Heritage' primocane-fruiting raspberries. The IR, PF, and STR treatments were reapplied after the 1993 establishment year to examine their effects on an established, hedgerow planting. Physical environment, vegetative and reproductive data were collected. PF increased root and shoot mass, total flower number, and total berries harvested. Maximum leaf net photosynthetic (Pn) rates were observed under cool air temperatures and root-zone temperature of 25 °C. Field Pn measurements indicated that there was no seasonal decline in Pn. Mulch treatments however, were not beneficial to the established (i.e., 2-year-old) hedgerow planting. The root system of the 2-year-old planting was largely confined to an area within the foliage wall and also at a greater depth from the mulch treatments. Therefore, beneficial effects of mulch management on the growth and development of raspberries may be limited to the establishment year.

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya and Jeffrey G. Williamson

autumn-bearing red raspberries as an annual crop in Florida Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 109 231 232 Lee, Y.C. Kang, S.M. 1997 Vine and fruit growth of seibel grapes for two years as affected by ecodormant root

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Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya, Rebecca L. Darnell and Jeffrey G. Williamson

, W. Schaffer, B. 1996 The potential of autumn-bearing red raspberries as an annual crop in Florida Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 109 231 232 Oliveira, P.B. Silva, M.J. Ferreira, R.B. Oliveira

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, Fayetteville, AR 72701 Production of autumn-bearing primocane blackberries in warm regions is limited by high temperatures during bloom and early fruit development which occur in late summer. Preliminary studies have indicated the potential for delaying bloom