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Donald Livingstone III, Barbie Freeman, Cecile L. Tondo, Kathleen A. Cariaga, Nora H. Oleas, Alan W. Meerow, Raymond J. Schnell and David N. Kuhn

solution spreadsheet, which calculates the amount of sample and water that needs to be combined to normalize sample concentrations to a user-defined value. This working solution sheet can be used with a liquid handling system to automate the normalization

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Qingquan Chu, Jiangang Liu, Khaled Bali, Kelly R. Thorp, Richard Smith and Guangyao (Sam) Wang

Significant research on and development of automated thinners was conducted in the 1960s and 1970s due to a shortage of low-cost labor ( Lillywhite et al., 2004 ; Siemens et al., 2012 ). During that time, nonselective and selective automated

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William D. Wheeler, Paul Thomas, Marc van Iersel and Matthew Chappell

). Automated irrigation through precision soil moisture sensing has been shown to be an efficient means of regulating irrigation application ( Lea-Cox et al., 2013 ; Majsztrik et al., 2013 ). Although a number of different soil moisture sensors exist

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Sue K. Dove and Marc W. van Iersel

capacitance soil moisture sensors require less maintenance and provide data that are easier to interpret than tensiometers, VWC may be the most useful measurement for automating irrigation systems ( Nemali et al., 2007 ). Capacitance sensors allow for easy

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Jeff B. Million and Thomas H. Yeager

automated CIRRIG irrigation system at a container nursery and comparing water use and plant growth of several landscape crops grown in small containers with sprinkler irrigation as well as in large containers with microirrigation. We include a brief economic

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C. Morrow, P Heinemann, H. Sommer, R. Crassweller, R. Cole, Y. Tao, Z. Varghese and S. Deck

Research is described on the development of an automated inspection system which uses digital images and artificial intelligence techniques. Procedures have been developed for evaluating size, shape, and color of apples, potatoes, and mushrooms. Current emphasis is being placed on developing algorithms for detection of surface defects. A major effort will also be expended toward the development of an overall “quality” score for automated inspection of fruit and vegetables. The automated results are compared with those obtained using conventional manual inspection methods. Apples, potatoes, and mushrooms are the primary crops being inspected although the algorithms and techniques are applicable to many different fruits and vegetables. Color and monochromatic image processing components in “MS-DOS” and “Macintosh” computers are being used in this study.

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Amanda Bayer, John Ruter and Marc W. van Iersel

currently limited ( Warsaw et al., 2009 ). Understanding how plant growth is affected by maintenance of different θ thresholds will allow for species-specific guidelines. Automated irrigation using capacitance sensors to maintain θ thresholds can be used to

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Qamar Uz Zaman, Arnold Walter Schumann and David Charles Percival

this study was to develop and test a cost-effective automated system for real-time slope measurement and mapping in commercial wild blueberry fields. Material and methods Hardware development for slope measurement and mapping system (smms). A tilt

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Kristof Vermeulen, Kathy Steppe, Katrien Janssen, Peter Bleyaert, Jan Dekock, Jean-Marie Aerts, Daniel Berckmans and Raoul Lemeur

387 Dugas, W. 1990 Comparative measurement of stem flow and transpiration in cotton Theor. Appl. Climatology 42 215 221 Ehret, D.L. Lau, A. Bittman, S. Lin, W. Shelford, T. 2001 Automated monitoring of greenhouse crops Agronomie 21 403 414 de Graaf, R

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Lance V. Stott, Brent Black and Bruce Bugbee

. Cardon, G. Bugbee, B. 2019 Drought tolerance of Navajo and Lovell peach trees: Precision water stress using automated weighing lysimeters HortScience 54 799 803