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Ana Regia Alves de Araújo Hendges, Jose Wagner da Silva Melo, Marcelo de Almeida Guimaraes and Janiquelle da Silva Rabelo

onion ( A. fistulosum ), coriander ( C. sativum ), basil ( O. basilicum ), and parsley ( P. crispum )] could promote changes in the structure of the arthropod community (diversity and abundance); 2) to analyze whether intercropping could reduce

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Raymond A. Cloyd

Pesticides, in this case, insecticides and miticides, are the primary means of controlling arthropod (insect and mite) pests encountered in greenhouse production systems, including greenhouse whitefly ( Trialeurodes vaporariorum ), sweetpotato

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John C. Snyder

Breeding for resistance to insects and other arthropod pests in vegetables has been a difficult endeavor. Greater public awareness of health and environmental issues requires that we as horticultural scientists reexamine why breeding for resistance has been difficult. The literature clearly suggests the potential for a genetic solution, and the literature also reveals some reasons why achievement of genetic resistance to arthropod pests has not been as successful as the achievement of resistance to pathogens. The thesis of my presentation is that the complexity of plant-arthropod interactions often prevents simple genetic approaches to breeding for resistance. Data using Lycopersicon hirsutum and its interaction with spider mites will provide examples of the these complex interactions. L. hirsutum is a wild relative of L. esculentum, the common tomato, and is nearly immune to insect attack. However, there are few or no clear examples of this taxa contributing to the insect resistance of tomato. The complexity of the interaction between mites and trichomes on L. hirsutum will be highlighted as it pertains to environment and genetics of the plant, and the development of the arthropod.

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Henry W. Hogmire and Stephen S. Miller

As part of a regional NE-183 project (Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars), 23 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars were evaluated for arthropod pest susceptibility. Incidence or injury data were collected from six foliage and eight fruit pests under field conditions over a four year period (2000–03). Cultivars were ranked based on susceptibility (least to most) to each pest, and rankings were summed for members of the foliage and fruit pest group to develop a susceptibility rating for foliage, fruit and all pests combined. Cultivars with lowest susceptibility to foliage pests included `GoldRush' and `Pioneer Mac', whereas `Yataka' and `Cameo' were most susceptible. For fruit pests, susceptibility was lowest for `Pristine' and `Sunrise', and highest for `Cameo', `Fuji Red Sport #2', and `Gala Supreme'. When both foliage and fruit pests were combined, susceptibility was lowest for `Sunrise' and `Pioneer Mac', and highest for `Cameo'. Some increasingly popular cultivars had high levels of injury from a few pests, including plum curculio and apple maggot on `Ginger Gold', codling moth and oriental fruit moth on `Cameo', and japanese beetle, plum curculio and apple maggot on `Honeycrisp'. A positive and significant correlation was found between day of harvest and percent fruit injury from codling moth/oriental fruit moth and tufted apple bud moth/redbanded leafroller, with later maturing cultivars experiencing higher injury levels presumably due to more exposure to later generations of these pests. Differences among cultivars in pest incidence and injury can be used by growers to improve pest management through cultivar selection, or by making modifications in control programs based on cultivar susceptibility.

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D.S. Lawson, S.K. Brown, J.P. Nyrop and W.H. Reissig

A barrier system for pest control consisting of insect-exclusionary cages covered with three types of mesh material was placed over columnar apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees. This system has been shown to provide arthropod control equivalent to insecticides. Light intensity, evaporation, and air and soil temperature were reduced inside the cages. Shoot elongation of columnar apple trees grown inside insect-exclusionary cages was significantly greater than that of trees grown outside the cages. However, this increased shoot growth was not due to etiolation. Tree performance was unaffected by insect-exclusionary cages. Fruit set and fruit soluble solids concentration were not reduced by the cages; however, fruit color intensity was reduced as the degree of shading from the mesh increased. These findings, in conjunction with high levels of arthropod control by insect-exclusionary cages, may allow insect-exclusionary cages to be used for evaluating integrated pest management thresholds, predator-prey relationships, and apple production without insecticides.

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A. Shiferaw, M.W. Smith, R.D. Eikenbary and Don C. Arnold

Perennial legumes ground covers were evaluated in pecan (Carya illinoinensis) orchards to supply nitrogen and increase beneficial arthropods. Ground covers were `Kenland' red clover (Trifolium pratense), `Louisiana S-1' white clover (Trifolium repens), a mixture of these two legumes, or bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), each in 5 ha plots. Nitrogen was applied at 0-200 kg·ha-1 N in 50 kg intervals to bermuda grass plots, and was omitted on the legumes. Aphids feeding on the legumes attracted lady beetles; however, lady beetle populations in the tree canopies were not affected by ground cover treatment. The most abundant lady beetle species in legumes were Coleomegilla maculata lengi (77%) and Coccinella septempunctata (13%); whereas, dominant species in tree canopies were Coleomegilla maculata lengi (33%). Olla v-nigrum (20%). Cycloneda munda (18%) and Coccinella septempunctata (15%). Several other beneficial arthropods were sampled in legumes and tree canopies. Aphid populations feeding on pecans were low (peak population ≈ 2 aphids/leaf), and not affected by ground cover treatment. Legumes supplied the equivalent of applying 68-156 kg·ha-1 N.

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Joe R. Williamson and Donn T. Johnson

Agricultural monocultures with intensive pest management practices reduce diversity and create instability in agricultural ecosystems, thereby increasing reliance upon pesticides. This study compares the influence of three insect pest management programs in vineyards on arthropod diversity as well as parasitism and control of grape berry moth (Endopiza viteana), the key pest of grapes (Vitis labrusca) in eastern North America. Vineyards in Bald Knob, Hindsville, Judsonia, Lowell, and Searcy, Ark., were managed with a range of intensity of insecticide use, a reduced insecticide program with Exosex-GBM dispensers for mating disruption, or no pesticide use in abandoned vineyards. Arthropod diversity and carabid (Carabidae) density in each vineyard was sampled with pitfall traps. Grape berry moth flight was monitored by pheromone traps. Grape berry moth–infested grapes were collected from the field and reared in the lab until parasites or moths emerged. There were significant differences in arthropod diversity between vineyard sites, with Shannon diversity index values generally higher in woods and managed vineyards with conventional sprays and/or mating disruption than in abandoned sites. Shannon index values for arthropod diversity were significantly lower at the vineyard edge in Searcy (recently abandoned), vineyard center and edge in Bald Knob (abandoned), and the vineyard edge in Hindsville (conventional sprays). In 2003, carabid density was significantly highest in the edge and center of the Hindsville vineyard (high insecticide usage) and the abandoned Bald Knob vineyard had significantly lowest carabid density. Apparently, insecticide sprays resulted in more food on the vineyard floor for carabids. The vineyard floor management was too variable among vineyards to deduce its effect on carabid density. With some exceptions, low-spray and no-spray vineyards generally showed greater diversity and parasitism of grape berry moth than high-spray vineyards. Parasitism was higher in some high-spray vineyards than in low-spray with mating disruption vineyards. Grape berry moth flight and berry damage were more dependent on spray timing than intensity. This study demonstrates that insect pest management programs impact arthropod diversity and parasitism. Further testing is needed to determine why parasitism of grape berry moth decreased in the vineyards using the mating disruption tactic.

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R.J. Griesbach, J.W. Neal Jr. and J. Bentz

A novel ecotype of Petunia integrifolia subsp. integrifolia var. depauperata with glabrous leaves was found near the town of Torres, Brazil, and hybridized with P. ×hybrida. In the F1 and F2 generations, the glabrous leaf trait was quantitatively inherited with high heritability. The absence of trichomes was not associated with the decrease in the resistance of the glabrous-leaved species and hybrids to aphids, but was correlated with a lower resistance to spider mites.

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Tahir Rashid, Donn T. Johnson, Don C. Steinkraus and Curt R. Rom

Insecticides were compared for control of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta), and effects on european red mites (Panonychus ulmi) and predatory mites (Neoseiulus fallacis) in `Red Delicious' apple trees (Malus ×domestica). Ten days after treatment with azinphosmethyl, celerylooper (Anagrapha falcifera) nuclear polyhedrosis virus, rotenone-pyrethrin, or codling moth granulosis virus, fruit damage by larval codling moth and oriental fruit moth was significantly less than trees treated with Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki or water (control). Trees treated with azinphosmethyl or celery looper nuclear polyhedrosis virus had fewer damaged fruit where larvae exited than did other treatments. By 21 days after the last treatment, all treatments had significantly more wormy or damaged fruit than did azinphosmethyl. At 10 days after treatment, the two viruses were more deleterious to codling moth than to oriental fruit moth causing a <1:3 ratio of these larvae compared to >3:1 ratio for the other treatments. On 16 June, 100 predatory mites were released onto the trunk of each tree. The minimum ratio of predatory mites to european red mites (>1:10) that favors biological control of european red mites occurred in all treatments by 14 July, except those treated with azinphosmethyl or rotenone-pyrethrin that had significantly more cumulative mite days of european red mites than the other treatments. The use of azinphosmethyl delayed biological control of the european red mites until 27 July whereas rotenone-pyrethrin treatment never attained biological control of the mites.