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Esmaeil Fallahi, Pontia Fallahi and Shahla Mahdavi

The history of Persian gardens goes back to a few millennia before the emergence of Islam in Iran (Persia). Designs of Persian gardens have influenced and are used extensively in the gardens of Al-Andalus in Spain, Humayun’s Tomb and the Taj Mahal in India, and many gardens in the United States and other countries around the globe. Bagh in the Persian language (Farsi) means garden and the word Baghdad (the capital city of Iraq) is rooted from the words bagh and daad (meaning “the garden of justice”). Pasargadae, the ancient Persian capital city, is the earliest example of Persian garden design known in human civilization as chahar bagh or 4-fold garden design. Bagh-e-Eram, or Garden of Eden or Eram Garden, is one the most attractive Persian gardens and is located in Shiraz, Iran. There are numerous other urban ancient gardens in Iran, including Bagh-e-Shahzadeh (Shazdeh), meaning “The Prince’s Garden” in Mahan, Golestan National Park near the Caspian Sea; Bagh-e-Fin in Kashan; Bagh-e-El-Goli in Tabriz; and Bagh-e-Golshan in Tabas. The design of each Persian garden is influenced by climate, art, beliefs, poetry, literature, and romance of the country and the region where the garden is located. In addition, each garden may have a gene bank of fruits, flowers, herbs, and vegetables. Although countless gardens were destroyed in the hands of invaders throughout the centuries, Persians have attempted either to rebuild or build new gardens generation after generation, each of which has become a favorite destination to tourists from around the world.

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Wu-Zhong Zhou and Xiao-Bai Xu

More and more people have become very interested in bonsai, a unique art of gardening that originated in China. However, most people know about Japanese bonsai and have only scant knowledge of Chinese bonsai. This paper gives a brief introduction to the history, local schools, and patterns of the bonsai art in the Chinese tradition, as well as a list of plants used for bonsai in China.

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Lamont William James Jr

correct knowledge of the art of gardening cannot be obtained from theoretical writings” and “that a college graduate who goes into horticultural extension service of any state should have a full appreciation of the meaning of the art of horticulture.” He