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Ni Jia, Qing-Yan Shu, Dan-Hua Wang, Liang-Sheng Wang, Zheng-An Liu, Hong-Xu Ren, Yan-Jun Xu, Dai-Ke Tian and Kenneth Michael Tilt

( Cuyckens and Claeys, 2004 ). Taking into account that arabinose is the common pentose found in nature ( Da Silva et al., 2007 ), peak 6 was tentatively identified as Pn3G5Ara ( Fig. 4 ; Tables 2 and 3 ), although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR

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Annelle W.B. Holder, Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

; were tryptophan deaminase positive; showed urease activity; hydrolyzed cellulose; grew on YDA amended with 2% NaCl; produced acids from galactose, arabinose, glycerol; and used acetate, formiate, and citrate ( Prior and Rott, 1989 ). Isolates were shown

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P. Lawrence Pusey, David R. Rudell, Eric A. Curry and James P. Mattheis

carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in stigma exudates using ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ apple flowers at 40% to 60% anther dehiscence. When samples were hydrolyzed and evaluated for sugars, results with both cultivars indicated a predominance of galactose and arabinose

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Gregory M. Glenn and B.W. Poovaiah

Changes in texture, cell wall structure and composition during storage of Ca-treated and untreated `Golden Delicious' apple fruit (Malus domestics Borkh.) were investigated. The cell wall region of Ca-treated fruit showed no swelling during storage and cell-to-cell contact was maintained, whereas regions of the middle lamella in untreated tissue stained lightly, appeared distended, and eventually separated. In control fruit, microfibril orientation was lost in distended regions of the cell wall, especially in the outer wall region adjacent to the middle lamella. Furthermore, the middle lamella was fenestrated and in some cases was completely degraded. These changes during storage of control fruit were accompanied by a decrease in arabinose and galactose moieties of the cell wall and an increase in soluble pectin. Calcium treatment of fruit inhibited solubilization of polyuronide and arabinose moieties and reduced the loss in galactose content during storage. Tensile strength and firmness were positively correlated to Ca content of the fruit cortex. Excessive tensile stress caused tissue failure in control fruit when cells of the cortical tissue separated at the middle lamella. In contrast, cylinders of Ca-treated fruit fractured through cortical cell walls.

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Joshua D. Klein, Susan Lurie and Ruth Ben-Arie

`Anna' and `Granny Smith' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) that were held at 38C for 4 days before storage at 0C not only were firmer than controls upon removal from storage, but also softened more slowly during shelf life at 17C. Skin yellowing and loss of acidity attendant upon the heat treatment were not prevented by dipping fruit in 2% CaCl2 before heating. Both heat-treated and control fruit softened at the same rate upon exposure to ethylene at 100 μl·liter-1 upon removal from storage. The insoluble pectin content of cortical tissues was higher in heat-treated fruit than in controls after 10 days at 17C, while soluble pectin levels were lower. Arabinose and xylose levels were lower in cell walls from heat-treated cortical tissue, but the treatment had no effect on loss of galactose residues during shelf life.

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Janet McCray Batzli, William R. Graves and Peter van Berkum

Abbreviations: MAG, modified arabinose gluconate; NADP, nicotinamide adenine dimucleotide; PAR, photosythetically active radiation; YEM, yeast extract mannitol agar. 1 Current address: Dept. of Forestry, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801. 2 To

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Marius Huysamer, John M. Labavitch and Adel A. Kader

Commercially grown Granny Smith apples were stored at 0°C in air or 1% O2, and 2 sets of samples were taken every 4 weeks over a 28 week period. One set was immediately analysed for weight loss, firmness, color, soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity. Alcohol-insoluble substances were analysed for starch, water-soluble uronides, water-insoluble uronides, cellulose and neutral sugars. The second set of samples was kept in air at 20°C for an additional week, during which respiration and ethylene production rates were measured, prior to the above analyses. Storage in 1% O2 led to the improved maintenance of firmness, reduced respiration and ethylene production rates in ambient air, and a reduced content of water-soluble uronides, suggesting a reduced degree of hydrolysis. The correlation between firmness and water-soluble uronide content was not very strong. The predominant neutral sugars present in the wall were arabinose and galactose, and activities of putative hydrolyses that may be involved in the metabolism of polymers containing these sugars will be discussed.

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Y. Liu, B.S. Patil, H. Ahmad and D.T. Gardiner

Pectin is a class of complex polysaccharides that function as hydrating agents and cementing materials for the cellulose network. Pectin has various health benefits, such as decreasing serum cholesterol levels, alleviating diabetes mellitus, and preventing cancer. It has been reported that the cancer prevention effect is closely related to the structure of pectin (galactose-rich, molecular weight <10,000, and methylation degree 50% to 70%). This study was conducted to investigate the variation of grapefruit pectin content due to harvest time. `Rio Red' grapefruit on sour orange rootstock grown at Texas A&M Univ.-Kingsville Citrus Center were harvested every 2 months and analyzed for pectin content, galacturonic acid concentration, methylation degree, and neutral sugar composition. Results showed that lamella contains more pectin than flavedo and albedo. In the lamella, the edible section, the uronic acid content ranged from 85% to 90% from August to April the following year. Methylation degree increased from August (31.89%) to April (46.99%). Total neutral sugar content of lamella pectin decreased from 110.54 to 61.77% mg·g -1. Galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose are the major sugar contents of pectin (85%), and glucose content increased with the season from 3.14 to 13.34 mg·g-1. Molecular weight of pectin was also determined.

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Marius Huysamer, L. Carl Greve and John M. Labavitch

Discs from outer pericarp of mature green (MG) and light red (LR) tomatoes were incubated with 13C6-glucose as precursor to cell wall constituents, to determine biosynthetic capacity of the outer 2mm (including cuticle) and adjacent inner 2mm of tissue. Cell wall material was fractionated into pectic and hemicellulosic classes by sequential extraction, and alditol acetates and partially-methylated alditol acetates were prepared. Neutral sugars (NS), glycosidic linkage compositions and incorporation of label were determined by GC-FID and GC-MS. Rhamnose, arabinose and galactose accounted for ca. 90% of both labeled and total NS in the pectic fractions (sugar ratios within ripeness stage were the same for labeled and total NS). Xylose and glucose accounted for ca. 70% of both labeled and total NS in the hemicellulosic fraction (sugar ratios within ripeness stage were different between labeled and total NS). In the crude cell wall, galactose and glucose contents were significantly higher in the inner than in outer tissues for both MG and LR tomatoes. Loss of galactose during ripening was higher from outer tissues. These results show compositional differences between inner and outer tissues, and suggest that ripening-related wall synthesis may give rise to pectic polymers similar in NS composition to existing polysaccharides, and hemicellulosic polymers which may differ in composition.

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Marius Huysamer, John M. Labavitch and Adel A. Kader

Commercially grown Granny Smith apples were stored at 0°C in air or 1% O2, and 2 sets of samples were taken every 4 weeks over a 28 week period. One set was immediately analysed for weight loss, firmness, color, soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity. Alcohol-insoluble substances were analysed for starch, water-soluble uronides, water-insoluble uronides, cellulose and neutral sugars. The second set of samples was kept in air at 20°C for an additional week, during which respiration and ethylene production rates were measured, prior to the above analyses. Storage in 1% O2 led to the improved maintenance of firmness, reduced respiration and ethylene production rates in ambient air, and a reduced content of water-soluble uronides, suggesting a reduced degree of hydrolysis. The correlation between firmness and water-soluble uronide content was not very strong. The predominant neutral sugars present in the wall were arabinose and galactose, and activities of putative hydrolyses that may be involved in the metabolism of polymers containing these sugars will be discussed.