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Ji Tian, Zhen-yun Han, Li-ru Zhang, Ting-Ting Song, Jie Zhang, Jin-Yan Li, and Yuncong Yao

Flavonoids are generated via a branched biosynthetic pathway that yields both colorless compounds (e.g., flavonols) and colored pigments, such as anthocyanins, polymeric phlobaphenes, and proanthocyanidins ( Koes et al., 2005 ). Flavonoids

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Cain C. Hickey and Tony K. Wolf

high-temperature-driven anthocyanin reduction in highly exposed grapes, especially on afternoon-sun canopy sides ( Bergqvist et al., 2001 ; Spayd et al., 2002 ; Tarara et al., 2008 ). Similar practices were adopted subsequently in humid eastern U

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Maria Papafotiou, Barbara Avajianneli, Costas Michos, and Iordanis Chatzipavlidis

ones have all three colors. We found no reports in the literature on the type of pigments involved in the coloration of croton leaves; thus, anthocyanins, which usually are responsible for red coloration in plant tissues ( Mulder–Krieger and Verpoorte

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Hongmei Ma, Margaret Pooler, and Robert Griesbach

Anthocyanin biosynthesis was first characterized in Zea mays and was demonstrated to be predominantly regulated at the transcription level by two families of regulatory factors, R-like MYC (R, B, Lc, Sn) and R2R3-MYB (C1/Pl) proteins ( Brevitz

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Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle, and David S. Gardner

Anthocyanins have become sought-after natural products due to potential for medicinal and industrial uses. These metabolites have a number of health-promoting properties; increasing demand for nutraceuticals, fruits, and vegetables containing

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Peter J. Mes, Peter Boches, James R. Myers, and Robert Durst

purplish brown” color. The pigments in most fruit and vegetables with purple color are anthocyanins, but to our knowledge, none of the so-called purple or black tomatoes contain substantial quantities of anthocyanins. The cultivated tomato does express

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Gordon J. Lightbourn, John R. Stommel, and Robert J. Griesbach

Capsicum annuum (pepper) is cultivated as both an ornamental and a vegetable. Anthocyanin pigmentation in leaves, flowers, and fruit imparts violet to black color and enhances both ornamental and culinary appeal. Anthocyanins are the end

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Ji Tian, Ke-ting Li, Shi-ya Zhang, Jie Zhang, Ting-ting Song, Yong-jun Zhu, and Yun-cong Yao

Anthocyanins are a class of pigments that contribute to the red, blue, and purple colors of many organs and tissues in a wide range of plant species ( Field et al., 2001 ; Honda and Saito, 2002 ). Anthocyanins also have diverse other functions

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Rosanna Freyre, Chad Uzdevenes, Liwei Gu, and Kenneth H. Quesenberry

carotenoid pigments and are inferred to serve to attract pollinators ( Davies, 2004 ). Flavonoids are the most common flower color pigment, and the predominant flavonoid pigments are the anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are composed of an anthocyanidin and sugar

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Henry D. Schreiber and Nicholas A. Wade

the sepals is an anthocyanin, delphinidin- o -glucoside ( Takeda et al., 1985 ), whose flavylium cation provides the characteristic pink-red color to hydrangea sepals ( Moncada et al., 2003 ). Sepals turn blue because this anthocyanin forms a complex