reports of successful prediction of tomato yield ( Adams, 2002 ; Heuvelink, 1995 ), it is difficult to predict the weekly pattern of yield. Yield in single-truss tomato was strongly correlated with total light received from anthesis to harvesting ( McAvoy
Zane Raudenbush and Steven J. Keeley
’ expectations. Spring herbicide applications coincide with one of three dandelion anthesis stages: pre-bloom, peak-bloom, or post-bloom. To the casual observer, the extent of a dandelion infestation may not be apparent until the flush of bright flowers occurs
Ioannis C. Porlingis and Demetrios G. Voyiatzis
Anthesis of an important staminate pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivar (B) in Greece was delayed by foliar paclobutrazol (PBZ) sprays applied in June or July the previous season. A September spray was ineffective. The amount of delay depended on dose (50 to 1000 mg PBZ/liter applied to incipient runoff). Using the same total amount of chemical, one spray was as effective as two sprays 1 month apart. There were no effects on inflorescence fresh weight, pollen production, and pollen germination. Stem elongation was inhibited strongly, but the number of nodes and flower buds per shoot was reduced only slightly. In Expt. 2, two other staminate cultivars (A and C) responded similarly to cultivar B. Treatment effects appeared only during the treatment year, whereas a soil drench was effective for 2 years. PBZ may be able to synchronize the blooming of staminate and distillate pistachio cultivars and result in good fruit set without artificial pollination. Chemical name used: B[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl] -α-(1,1 dimethylethyl)-l H -1,2,4-triazole-l-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Keith A. Funnell
. In other crop species, a common method of production scheduling uses the accumulation of heat units or sum of growing degree-days (GDD) to estimate the expected time to anthesis ( Huang et al., 1999 ; Whitman et al., 1997 ). Production scheduling
Edgar L. Vinson III, Floyd M. Woods, Joseph M. Kemble, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Angela Davis and J. Raymond Kessler
tomatoes, there is no color break visible on watermelon rind, and the plethora of rind patterns and colors makes ripeness difficult to predict among genotypes and cultivars. Like tomatoes, using days after anthesis is an indicator, but not absolute
Ashley K. Brantley, James D. Spiers, Andrew B. Thompson, James A. Pitts, J. Raymond Kessler Jr., Amy N. Wright and Elina D. Coneva
optimize pollination of female plants, it is important to know the length of time that flowers can be successfully pollinated. The EPP has been defined as the period following anthesis in which pollination can effectively produce a fruit ( Sanzol and
Ann M. Chanon, Pablo S. Jourdan and Joseph C. Scheerens
As a prelude to interspecific hybridization, we compared the floral biology of bottlebrush buckeye (Aesculus parviflora) and red buckeye (A. pavia) by examining inflorescence morphology, pattern of floral anthesis, sex expression, and the effects of panicle decapitation on complete flower development. Inflorescences of both species (n = 1606) were randomly selected and analyzed for length, total number of flowers and complete flower number and location. The pattern of anthesis was observed in four genotypes using 10–30 inflorescences per plant. For each flower, its date of anthesis, position on both the rachis and cincinnus, and sex were recorded. For studies of panicle decapitation, sets of panicles were selected and one member was severed in half early in development in an attempt to increase the number of complete flowers. More than one-fourth of all panicles observed were completely staminate. For both species, the ratio of complete flowers to male flowers (C:M) within mixed panicles was about 5%. Complete flowers were observed in the basal portion of A. pavia inflorescences and in the apical portion of A. parviflora inflorescences. Anthesis progressed from base to tip over a period of 6–11 days. Complete flowers are present in A. pavia from the beginning of anthesis but do not appear in A. parviflora until the fifth day of anthesis. Staminate flowers are present throughout anthesis in both species. Severing panicles in half increased the potential for differentiating complete flowers. In conclusion, the frequency of complete flowers in both species was quite low, but could be increased by panicle decapitation to increase opportunities for controlled hybridization.
Richard McAvoy and Bernard Bible
Bract necrosis (BN) in poinsettia is thought to be caused by a localized calcium deficiency in the margins of bracts. Both calcium and silicate sprays can suppress the post-anthesis development of BN if applied repeatedly during bract development. However, studies conducted in 1993 and 1994, with BN-susceptible scions (`Supjibi') grafted onto either `Supjibi' rootstock or the BN-resistant `Annette Hegg Dark Red' (AHDR) rootstock, failed to support the calcium hypothesis. In these studies, higher calcium concentrations were found in the margins of `Supjibi' bracts on `Supjibi' rootstock, then in `Supjibi' bracts on `AHDR' rootstock, even thought the incidence of BN was highest on plants with `Supjibi' rootstock. These studies suggested that non-nutritional factors (possibly hormonal factors) may play a role in BN. In 1995, `Supjibi' plants were produced in the greenhouse, and at initial anthesis, were sprayed once with either deionized (DI) water, benzyladenine (BA) (100 ppm), or daminozide (2000 ppm). At initial anthesis, plants in all treatment groups showed a low level of BN (0.75% of bracts with symptoms). Four weeks after initial anthesis, 18.5% of bracts on DI water sprayed plants and 38.7% of bracts on daminozide treated plants had developed BN; but BA treated plants developed BN on only 1% of bracts. At final harvest (38 days after treatments were applied), BN was evident on 3.4% of BA-treated bracts, 28.7% of DI-treated bracts, and 46.3% of daminozide-sprayed bracts.
Sylvie Jenni, Daniel C. Cloutier, Gaétan Bourgeois and Katrine A. Stewart
Growth of `Earligold' muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), expressed as plant dry weight from transplanting to anthesis, could be predicted using a multiple linear regression based on air and soil temperatures for 11 mulch and rowcover combinations. The two independent variables of the regression model consisted of a heat unit formula for air temperatures, with a base temperature of 14C and a maximum reduced threshold of 40C, and a standard growing-degree day formula for soil temperatures with a base temperature of 12C. Based on 2 years of data, 86.5% of the variation in the dry weight (on a log scale) could be predicted with this model. The base temperature for predicting developmental time to anthesis of perfect flowers was established at 6.8C and the thermal time ranged between 335 and 391 degree days in the 2 years of the experiment.
John E. Erwin and Royal D. Heins
Day (DT) and night temperatures (NT) influenced Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Nellie White' stem elongation and development rate from the visible bud stage (VB) until anthesis. Plant height increase after VB was a function of the difference (DIF) between DT and NT (DT-NT). Plant height increased 90% as DIF increased from - 16 to 16C. A cubic model described bud development rate as a function of temperature from 14 to 30C. A linear model adequately described bud development rate as a function of average daily temperature from 14 to 21C. Based on the linear model, bud development rate increased 0.05 per day for each 1C increase in average daily temperature. The base temperature for bud development, i.e., the temperature at which bud development rate was 0, was calculated as 3.5C.