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Warren F. Lamboy, Jing Yu, Phil L. Forsline and Norman F. Weeden

One of the primary progenitors of the cultivated apple is Malus sieversii L., a species native to the forested regions of central Asia. Despite the horticultural importance of M. sieversii, little is known about genetic variation in this species. In this study, allozyme diversity at 18 loci was determined for 259 seedlings belonging to 31 sib families, each consisting of the set of offspring from a different open-pollinated maternal (seed) parent. Maternal parents belonged to 14 populations from four geographic regions. Genetic diversity statistics were computed from the resulting allele and phenotype frequencies. Cluster analysis of sib families showed that there was some grouping based on geographic region, but 16 of the sib families were most closely related to sib families from other regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 85% of the enzyme variability was due to differences among sib families within populations and 15% was due to differences among regions. No variability could be assigned to differences among populations within regions. In addition, no alleles were found that were fixed in a region and unique to that region. These results suggest that plants belonging to M. sieversii effectively form a panmictic population. Consequently, a thorough sampling of a few large populations will efficiently capture most of the genetic diversity present in wild M. sieversii.

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Basilio Carrasco, Marcelo Garcés, Pamela Rojas, Guillermo Saud, Raúl Herrera, Jorge B. Retamales and Peter D.S. Caligari

frequency distribution was analyzed using analysis of molecular variance [AMOVA ( Excoffier et al., 1992 )]. The statistical significance of variance components were evaluated using null distributions generated by random permutation of individuals (100

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Zhengwang Jiang, Feiyan Tang, Hongwen Huang, Hongju Hu and Qiliang Chen

Smouse, 2001 ). The relative magnitude of genetic differentiation between geographic cultivar groups [Wright's F -statistic ( F ST )] was calculated by different methods implemented in analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) ( Excoffier et al., 1992 ) and

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P. Escribano, M.A. Viruel and J.I. Hormaza

unknown exact origin, with homozygous null alleles or with a microsatellite phenotype of more than two bands, through an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using ARLEQUIN 3.01 ( Excoffier et al., 2005 ) based on the number of different alleles and 10

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Dong Liu, Ping Li, Jiulong Hu, Kunyuan Li, Zhenyu Zhao, Weiyan Wang, Jinyuan Zhang, Xu Ding and Zhimou Gao

of the correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance among different geographic groups ( Miller, 1997 ). Analysis of molecular variance within and between P. sojae populations was evaluated according to Excoffier et al. (1992

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Xingbo Wu and Lisa W. Alexander

with the dendrogram based on the neighbor-joining option implemented in MEGA 7 ( Kumar et al., 2016 ), with 500 bootstraps for nodal probability estimates. Genetic variation was calculated by an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using Arlequin 3

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Jennifer A. Kimball, M. Carolina Zuleta, Matthew C. Martin, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Ambika Chandra and Susana R. Milla-Lewis

divergence or variability within clusters is not as meaningful. Moreover, these results also indicate that there is clear separation of several ‘Raleigh’ samples (Cluster IV) from the original stocks. Table 3. Results of the analysis of molecular variance for

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Nathan C. Phillips, Steven R. Larson and Daniel T. Drost

significantly different in three of four comparisons ( Table 3 ). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of AFLP data showed among-group variation accounting for 34% of the total variation observed in the A. acuminatum samples, whereas 66% of the variation was

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Fuad Gasi, Silvio Simon, Naris Pojskic, Mirsad Kurtovic, Ivan Pejic, Mekjell Meland and Clive Kaiser

accessions from eastern Bosnia and international reference cultivars (f CT = 0.058; P < 0.01). Table 6. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on the 10 simple sequence repeat loci of 71 apple accessions corresponding to two areas in Bosnia and

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Jacob Mashilo, Hussein Shimelis, Alfred Odindo and Beyene Amelework

architecture of bottle gourd landraces selected showing the highest dissimilarity values revealed by 14 simple sequence repeat markers. Note: numbers on the photos designate entries presented in Table 1 . Analysis of molecular variance. AMOVA revealed that 79