( Camellia oleifera ) as affected by aluminum. Vertical bars indicate standard errors. Different letters on the top of bars indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 by least significant difference test. Fig. 2. The root growth of oil tea grown in pots
Liyuan Huang, Jun Yuan, Hui Wang, Xiaofeng Tan and Genhua Niu
Yawadee Srimake and Susan C. Miyasaka
Aluminum toxicity has been considered the most important limiting factor of plant growth on acid soils, which affects one-third of the world’s arable land area. In acid soils, crop productivity is affected by multiple stresses, such as deficiencies
Chun-qiong Huang, Guo-dao Liu and Chang-jun Bai
31.88% to 214.09% ( cv s = 45.78% and 42.84%, respectively). Table 2. Effect of aluminum treatment on vegetative growth and F value in 46 Zoysia Willd. accessions. Cluster analysis. The 46 accessions were classified into four groups (I–IV) after a
Aluminum toxicity is a major limiting factor for turfgrass establishment and growth when soil pH is <5.0. Limited information on aluminum resistance is available among warm-season turfgrasses and these turfgrasses often grow in the areas with acid soil conditions. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate seeded bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) cultivars for the ability to tolerate a high level of aluminum and 2) to measure the extent of aluminum damage to the root systems. In total, 16 bermudagrass cultivars were evaluated under greenhouse conditions using a solution culture and an acid Tatum soil (Clayey, mixed, thermic, typic, Hapludult). The soil had pH 4.4% and 69% exchangeable aluminum. A concentration of 640 μm aluminum and a pH 4.0 was used for solution culture. The grasses were grown for 28 days in solution culture; 28 days in the acid Tatum soil; and 78 days in the acid Tatum soil before harvesting. Aluminum resistance was determined by measuring the longest root length, the longest shoot length, dry root weight, dry shoot weight, and shoot to root ratio in comparing the control to obtain the relative Al resistance among the cultivars. The results indicate that seeded bermudagrass cultivars differ in their aluminum resistance.
Jun Yan, Jingbo Chen, Tingting Zhang, Jianxiu Liu and Haibo Liu
Soil acidity is a major problem in establishment and maintenance of turfgrass in many areas of the world ( Foy and Murray, 1978 ). Aluminum (Al) toxicity has been identified as a major problem for crop production in acidic soils since 1918
Marjorie Reyes-Diaz, Miren Alberdi and Maria de la Luz Mora
( Hede et al., 2001 ). Aluminum toxicity is a major agronomic problem in acid soils. Acid soils may account for as much as 50% of the world's potentially arable land ( Dahlgren et al., 2004 ). This problem is exacerbated by the current extensive use of
Marjorie Reyes-Díaz, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Rayen Millaleo, Edgardo Cruces, Cristián Wulff-Zottele, Miren Alberdi and María de la Luz Mora
It is well known that under soil acidification, aluminum (Al 3+ ) toxic ions are released into the soil solution, adversely affecting plant growth and crop yield and quality ( Kochian, 1995 ; Meringa et al., 2004 ; Tang et al., 2002 ). The
Jun Yuan, Liyuan Huang, Naifu Zhou, Hui Wang and Genhua Niu
and Poschenrieder, 2002 ; Yu et al., 2016 ). The concurrence of high Al (Al toxicity) and low P (P deficiency) has been widely investigated for many plant species ( Liao et al., 2006 ; Maejima et al., 2014 ; Zheng, 2010 ). Aluminum toxicity is
D. Powell, R. Kelley, G. Yang and M. Kamp-Glass
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), one of the most important forage legumes in the United States, has been recognized as an aluminum-sensitive species (Kemp-Glass et al., 1993). Hematoxylin staining has been used to evaluate differences in root growth and stain uptake between sensitive and resistant individuals in wheat (Ruiz-Torres et al., 1992). Attention in this study is focused on the hematoxylin staining pattern because the procedure is simple and rapid. Ten alfalfa cultivars were used: `Apollo', `ARC', `Foundation Vemal', `Shenandoah', `Spreador 2', `WL 311', `Saranac', `Saranac AR', `Cimarron', and `Cimarron VR'. Twenty seeds of each were stained in a solution of hematoxylin for 2 days. After staining, the seedlings were transferred to a potting medium for 14 days. After 14 days, plantlets were transferred to Porters soil (pH 4.5, 80% aluminum saturation) and grown in the greenhouse for 60 days. After 60 days, fresh and dry root and shoot weights were taken. Root length densities were determined and these parameters were compared to the tolerance level predicted by hematoxylin stain. Results of stain correlate with biomass at highly significant levels and will be of great use in the development of an acid/aluminum-tolerant alfalfa.
H. Liu, J.R. Heckman and J.A. Murphy
The fine fescues are generally considered to be acid-tolerant compared to many other cool-season turfgrasses. However, there is a lack of documentation on aluminum tolerance of fine fescues at both the species and cultivar levels. A total of 58 genotypes belonging to five species or sub-species were screened under greenhouse conditions using solution culture, sand culture, and acid Tatum subsoil. This soil had 69% exchangeable Al and a pH of 4.4. An Al concentration of 640 μM and a pH 4.0 were used in solution screening and sand screening. Differences in Al tolerance were identified at both species and cultivar levels based on relative growth. The genotypes with endophyte infection generally exhibited greater Al tolerance than endophyte-free genotypes. The results indicate that fine fescues vary in Al tolerance and there is potential to improve Al tolerance with breeding and to refine management recommendations for fine fescues regarding soil pH.