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Hye Ran Kwack and Paula Diane Relf

As the level of urbanization has increased, many people in Korea have begun to recognize the beneficial effects of plants in our immediate surroundings and involvement in horticultural activities. Today, an increasing number of Koreans attempt to improve the quality of life and enhance educational effectiveness through horticultural activities. Kindergarten, elementary, middle, and high schools have initiated garden-based programs. Some universities include courses focusing on horticulture applications to human well-being in their regular graduate programs or in their social education curricula. A few general hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, and rehabilitation centers have begun applying horticulture as a means of treatment. Most of the research articles in Korea on various aspects of human issues in horticulture have been published since the foundation of two academic societies, the Korean Horticultural Therapy Association and the Korean Society for Plants, People, and Environment. These articles are primarily focused on the areas of school gardening, healing gardens, and psychological or physiological effects of horticultural activities. For the future development of human issues in horticulture in Korea, several areas need to be enhanced including: interdisciplinary studies of horticulture and social education; development of different skills, techniques,and scales to validate the effects of horticultural therapy, healing gardens, and gardening as a teaching tool in public education; and an organization empowered to certify horticultural therapists.

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Diego Cunha Zied, Marli Teixeira Almeida Minhoni, J. Emilio Pardo-González, and Arturo Pardo-Giménez

of mushroom and the most important one is reduction in growing cycle. On the other hand, the application of formalin reduced yield with or without the CACing technique, which implies the need for an alternative treatment for disinfection. An

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Isabel Pimentel and Samuel Contreras

% ( Vertucci et al., 1987 ), we hypothesize that treatment of these seeds with R-light should decrease in photoblasticity and improve germination. Accordingly, the first objective of this study was to develop an alternative treatment to priming based on

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Morgan L. Cromwell, Lorraine P. Berkett, Heather M. Darby, and Takamaru Ashikaga

years, the alternative treatments showed some activity against apple scab but did not provide acceptable control. In 2008, the NO and PB treatments resulted in less fruit scab at the end of the growing season than the Bs treatment with the latter being

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Fernando Lalaguna

The banning of ethylene dibromide put an end to the exportation of Venezuelan melon to the northamerican market and made it a need testing alternative treatments. Melons were purchased from a grower/exporter and alloted in groups of 24 to the following treatments: control, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 KGy, and dip in water at 53C for 1 min. alone and plus 0.5 KGy, then they were stored at about 23C and 70% RH during 2 to 3 weeks in two experiments in one season. All the treatments resulted in comparable ratings for sensory attributes and figures for soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic/dehydroascorbic acid; the melons dipped in hot water showed the lowest decay. With the possible exception of the 1 KGy melons, the treated melons had attributes and lasted as least like the control ones, which indicates that the Galia cv. of melon grown in Venezuela tolerates irradiation with doses useful in quarantine and technological terms.

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Beth Clendenen, B.K. Behe, and K.L. Bowen

Eleven rose cultivars were field planted and evaluated weekly for disease, defoliation, and overall vigor in order to compare natural resistance to blackspot (Diplocarpon rosae). Alternative treatments were also compared for efficacy in low-maintenance disease control. Treatments included a bimonthly application of chlorothalonil, a bimonthly application of a horticultural oil, an application of chlorothalonil based on rain events, and a no-treatment control. Cultivars showed significant differences in disease severity, defoliation, and overall performance, with old garden rose varieties showing more natural disease resistance than modern susceptible varieties included in the study. Chlorothalonil applied on a 14-day spray schedule did provide a significant decrease in blackspot disease severity when compared to other treatments. A significant incidence of secondary disease including Cercospora rosicola and Botrytis cinerea occurred on old garden rose varieties. No treatment differences were found for these diseases. `Belinda's Dream', `The Fairy', and `Red Mediland' ranked highest in overall performance throughout the season.

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Olha Sydorovych, Charles D. Safley, Rob M. Welker, Lisa M. Ferguson, David W. Monks, Katie Jennings, Jim Driver, and Frank J. Louws

analysis, it was assumed that added (reduced) costs for the alternative treatments were incurred if any of the following conditions were true: the alternative treatment resulted in higher/lower fumigation costs, including material, equipment, and labor

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Eva García-Méndez, David García-Sinovas, Maximo Becerril, Antońeta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, Anselmo Martínez-Treceño, Steven A. Fennimore, Carmen Soria, Juan J. Medina, and Jóse M. López-Aranda

weeds at a level not different from the MB : Pic standard ( Table 4 ). Results obtained at Segovia in 2004 suggest that for experiments after a nonirrigated cereal crop, weed control resulting from alternative treatments was similar to the standard MB

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Steven A. Fennimore, Milton J. Haar, Rachael E. Goodhue, and Christopher Q. Winterbottom

expensive than the alternative treatments. Finally, there is substantial uncertainty regarding the future cost of field labor in California as a result of the possibility that the state government will mandate health insurance coverage and other

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Allen V. Barker and Randall G. Prostak

. Descriptions of visual indices (0–10 scale) used in scoring the efficacy of alternative treatments in control of vegetation in roadside plots under guardrails. Experiment 2. The second experiment investigated the effects of mowing of roadside vegetation on the