-cropping machinery producers will have to cope with market loss and eventually convert their facilities for new mechanical production as well. Thus, an alternative use of tobacco for other products is urgently needed to reorganize a sustainable local economy in these
Yingchao Lin, Dejun Kong, Zhihong Wang, Yi Chen, Zhixiao Yang, Chun Wu, Hui Yang, and Lili Chen
Dioecious papayas were introduced shortly after Cook’s 1778 discovery of Hawai’i but were supplanted for commercial uses by the gynodioecious solo papaya brought from the Caribbean in 1911. Growth of a local papaya industry based on hermaphrodite plants was enabled by research allowing prediction of seedling sex segregation and by development of cultivars with high quality, symmetrical fruits free of stamen carpellody, and carpel abortion. The industry expanded into export markets after 1940 by providing an alternative use for land and expertise abandoned by declining sugar plantations, adopting a cultivar capable of tolerating long-distance shipping, developing postharvest technology to overcome fruit fly quarantine restrictions, capitalizing on a growing tourism industry for marketing and air freight logistics, and forming an organization to support industry growth. In recent years, the industry has withstood pest and disease challenges by adopting innovative technologies that have allowed high-quality solo papayas to continue to participate in an increasingly competitive export market.
Winston Dunwell, Dwight Wolfe, William Maksymowicz, and Darrell Slone
Alternative use for float system greenhouse space is being studied in Kentucky. High sugar sweet corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars direct seeded into cool soils germinate poorly. A float transplant production system was used to produce high sugar sweet corn transplants that could be planted into cool soils. 100 seeds of sugar enhanced (se) 'How Sweet It Is' and super sweet (sh2) 'Early Xtra Sweet' sweet corn cultivars wars seeded into trays with a cell size of either 19 or 49 ml/cell. The trays were floated on heated or unheated water in the greenhouse. Percent germination was significantly influencedby cultivar. A greater percent germination was observed for 'How Sweet It Is' compared to 'Early Xtra Sweet' and for seeds sown in the 49 ml/cell trays compared to the 19 ml/cell trays. No significant differences resulted from varying the water temperature. Transplants were planted into cool soils with direct seeded sweet corn on April 21, 1992. The use of transplants resulted in a significantly greater plant stand and a two week earlier harvest than the use of the direct seeding.
Tina Gray Teague and Gail S. Lee
Soil fertility studies conducted in commercial vegetable fields to examine alternative uses of mid-south agricultural wastes as soil amendments included work with poultry litter, cotton gin trash, and rice hulls. Poultry litter applications ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 Mg·ha–1 resulted in significant increases in spinach, cabbage, turnip greens, and collard yields grown in soils damaged by precision leveling or in sandy soils with low organic matter; however, positive yield response to litter applied to undamaged soils was variable. Raw rice hulls applied at rates ranging from 2 to 44 Mg·ha–1 resulted in reduced cabbage yield. Trials with cotton gin trash and cover crops on yield of cabbage, broccoli, southern pea, snap bean, and cucumber indicate significant problems with weeds following use of raw gin trash. Composting alleviated most weed problems, but no yield response was apparent at composted gin trash rates ≤9.6 Mg·ha–1. High rates (60 Mg·ha–1) of composted gin trash on damaged soil significantly improved cabbage yield. There were increases in soil pH and Ca levels. Research was supported by a SAREIACE grant.
B.H. McCown, E.T. Jordan, C.H. Chen, D.D. Ellis, and R.D. Vierstra
Although the size of pot mums can be controlled with retardants, the use of such chemicals may become limited. Genetically dwarfing current cultivars may be an alternative. Using a construct including a chimeric oat phytochrome structural gene, tobacco phenotypes have been produced that strongly resemble retardant-treated plants. We wished to insert this construct in mum by using particle bombardment and determine the effects on plant size and flowering dynamics. A target system was developed using `Iridon' mum leaf sections regenerated on an IAA/BA medium. Shoots developed from surface cells principally at the cut edges. Regenerates were grown-on through flowering and no visual aberrations were apparent. Levels of 50 to 100 mg/l kanamycin were inhibitory to bud development. Sections were exposed to gene transfer and shoots recovered that appear resistant to kanamycin. Some appear chimeric while others appear to be escapes stimulated by a `feeder' effect from nearby transformed cells. Further analyses will determine whether some plants are stably transformed. (Supported by a Duffett Research Grant from Yoder Brothers, Inc.)
Harbans L. Bhardwaj, Anwar A. Hamama, and Muddappa Rangappa
Lack of adequate processing facilities has been a major hindrance in the adoption of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) as an alternative oilseed crop in the southern United States. Therefore, development of alternative uses could be instrumental in facilitating adoption of canola by American farmers. We evaluated chemical composition of greens from four canola cultivars (`Dixie', `Falcon', `HN120-91', and `Jetton') grown during 1995-96 and 1996-97 at Petersburg, Va., to determine their potential as a food and feed source. The results indicated potential yield of ≈11 t·ha-1 of fresh greens and ≈1 t·ha-1 of dry matter. The canola greens contained 3.4% oil and 30.6% protein on a dry weight basis. Canola greens contained 0.52%, 4.14%, 0.35%, 1.59%, and 0.20% (dry weight basis) of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, respectively. Canola greens also contained 0.94, 2.02, 5.47, 14.65, 28.61, 0.74, and 31.92 (mg/100 g dry weight basis) of sulfur, boron, zinc, manganese, iron, copper, and aluminum, respectively. The oil in canola greens contained 18.79%, 81.14%, 15.36%, and 65.78% saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Based on these values, canola greens compared favorably with mustard and turnip greens.
Seung-Ku Yang, Kyong-Ju Choi, Soon-Ju Chung, and Wol-Soo Kim*
In order to cultivate tomato of the first fruit cluster harvest a lot of nursery plants were required as much as 75,000 to 100,000 plants per hectare in green house in Korea. Therefore, it needs too many expenses to buy tomato seeds. This study was carried out to confirm the possibility of alternative use of the tomato cuttings instead of tomato seedlings of two varieties. The cutting materials of each node were taken from the suitable transplanting tomato seedling nursery plants in commercial green house. Four to five nodes of seedling nursery plants were cut into plug tray with 50 to 128 cells, 23 to 80 mL/cell in cell capacity. At 5 days after cutting rooting was initiated and the rooted plants could be transplanted as cutting nursery plants. The cutting nursery plants of Rockusanmaru and Momotarou-yoku varieties were planted to the perlite media in hydroponics bench in green house with 111,110 plants/ha (90 cm × 10 cm) in planting density at 8 May 2002. The matured fruits were harvested from 9 July through 26 July 2002. The number of harvested fruits was 2.9 to 3.3 for the two varieties. The fruit weight was 138 to 153 g for `Rockusanmaru', and 127 to 146 g for `Momotarou-yoku'. The cutting nursery plants of `Rockusanmaru' showed higher fruit yields as much as 51.5 tons/ha than that of seedlings as 40.3 tons/ha. There was a similar result in `Momotarou-yoku'. The duration from cutting to harvest of first fruit cluster was required 89 to 105 days, as well as 63 to 79 days from field planting to harvest. In conclusion the cultivation with tomato cutting nursery plants was considered as better effects in shorter periods in nursery raising and higher yields in comparison to conventional cultivation with seedlings.
provided similar benefits as other common tree-based mulches, and is a viable forest product. Conversion into mulch may provide an environmentally friendly alternative use for eastern redcedar and other underutilized woody species. Horticultural Therapy
at an abandoned ornamental nursery. In non-cropland and land-reclamation or conversion to alternative use settings, aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl offer potential in controlling tough perennial weeds like mugwort when compared to other
Hanah T. Rheay, Kevin Lombard, Catherine Brewer, and F. Omar Holguin
solar irradiation). Data evaluated herein add to potential alternative uses for neomexicanus: as an antimicrobial agent or source for natural polyphenols. While neomexicanus hops have potential as an aroma hop, further breeding experiments to minimize