-dihydro carvone, cis-carveol, carvone, iso-dihydro carveol acetate, beta-bourbonene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene/transbeta-farnesene, and germacrene D) for statistical analyses and report. Table 1. Concentration ranges of the 47 oil constituents in percent
Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, and Ekaterina Jeliazkova
Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Santosh Shiwakoti, Shital Poudyal, Thomas Horgan, Natasha Kovatcheva, and Anna Dobreva
Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is a medicinal, culinary, ornamental, and essential oil plant with a wide range of ecological adaptation. Garden sage essential oil traditionally is extracted by steam distillation from the above-ground biomass and has widespread applications as an aromatic agent in the food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in perfumery and cosmetics. The hypothesis of this study was that the steam distillation time (DT) may significantly affect essential oil yield and composition of garden sage and, therefore, DT could be used as a tool to obtain oil with different composition. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect of various steam DTs (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 minutes) on garden sage oil yield and composition. Most of the oil in the garden sage dry herbage was extracted in 10-minute DT; extending DT up to 160 minutes did not significantly increase oil yields. Overall, 39 oil constituents were identified in the garden sage essential oil. Fourteen oil constituents with the highest concentration in the oil were selected for statistical analyses. Monoterpenes represented the major percentage (58.2% to 84.1%) of oil composition followed by sesquiterpenes (4.0% to 16.1%) and diterpenes (0.3% to 7.6%). Overall, the monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, and limonene) were eluted early in the steam distillation process, which resulted in their high concentration in the oil at 5- to 10-minute DT and relatively low concentrations in the oil obtained at 160-minute DT. In general, the concentration of sesquiterpenes (β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and verdifloral) increased with increasing duration of the DT and reached their respective maximum concentrations in the oil at 160-minute DT. The relative concentrations of major constituents, camphor and cis-thujone, in the oil obtained at 2.5-minute DT were higher than in the oils obtained at longer DT. Therefore, if oil with high concentrations of camphor and cis-thujone is desirable, garden sage dried biomass ought to be steam distilled for 2.5 to 5 minutes and the oil collected. If oil with a high concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbons and a high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes is desirable, then garden sage should be distilled for 20 minutes. If oil with a high concentration of the diterpene manool is desirable, then garden sage should be steam-distilled for 80 minutes. If oil with a high concentration of sesquiterpenes is desirable, then garden sage should be steam-distilled for 160 minutes. The duration of steam distillation can be used as an economical method to obtain garden sage oil with a different chemical composition. The regression models developed in this study can be used to predict garden sage oil yield and composition distilled for various amounts of time and to compare literature reports in which different durations of DT were used.
Postharvest pitting, which has severely affected citrus quality, can be caused by wax application and high temperature storage. Internal volatile composition of waxed and non-waxed fruit could be an indicator of fruit susceptibility to postharvest pitting. In this study, volatile composition was compared between pitted and non-pitted `Fallglo' tangerines [Bower citrus hybrid (citrus reticulata Blanco × C. reticulata Blanco × C. paradisi Macf.) × Temple (C. reticulata Blanco × C. sinensis L.)], as well as in white `Marsh' grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.). Pitted fruit had a higher volatile concentration than non-pitted `Fallglo' tangerines or white `Marsh' grapefruit. Concentrations of camphene, ethyl hexanoate, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, and limonene were higher in pitted white `Marsh' grapefruit than in those of non-pitted fruit. In `Fallglo' tangerines, higher concentrations of limonene and citronellal were found in pitted fruits than in non-pitted fruit. In peel samples of grapefruit, seven different volatiles (methanol, ocimene, citronellyl acetate, alpha-copaene, trans-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene and valencene) were significantly higher in pitted peel than in non-pitted grapefruit peel. Volatiles, such as limonene could be used to predict peel disorders of white `Marsh' grapefruit and `Fallglo' tangerines during storage.
Shao-chang Qin, Juan-ling Li, Abdul Kareem, and Yong Wang
Biological importance and applications of squalene and squalane Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 65 223 233 Legault, J. Pichette. A. 2007 Potentiating effect of beta-caryophyllene on anticancer activity of alpha-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel J. Pharm