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James Beaver and Amy Iezzoni

Starch gel electrophoresis was employed to study inheritance and diversity of allozyme loci in a sour cherry (2n=4×=32) germplasm collection. Segregation data was collected for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), leucine amino peptidase (LAP), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), peroxidase (PX) (cathodal activity), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase (6-PGD), and shikimate dehydrogenase (s k d h).

Data suggest that alleles can be assigned to many of the enzyme systems being studied: ADH, GPI, IDH, LAP, PGM, and 6-PGD. Most loci are diallelic and often exhibit the unbalanced heterozygous condition. MDH, PX, and 6-PGD are highly polymorphic. Progeny segregation data fit disomic inheritance models, indicating that sour cherry is an allotetraploid.

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Hongwen Huang, Fenny Dane, and Joseph Norton

Allozyme genetic variability in three chestnut (Castanea) species was investigated using 19 loci from ten enzyme systems. G-tests of heterogeneity of isozymic allele distribution showed significant differences in both intraspecific and interspecific populations. C. mollissima was found to possess a significantly higher value of mean gene heterozygosity (H=0.3050±0.0419), percentage of polymorphic loci (P=84.21%) and average number of alleles per locus (A=2.05) than any other species in the Castanea section Eucustanon. When the genetic variability of populations of C. mollissimo from four regions in China was investigated, population from the Changjiang river region showed a markedly higher mean gene heterozygosity (H=0.3480±0.0436) than populations from the other regions. An approximately identical genetic distance between the population from the Changjiang river region and populations from three other regions was observed, while populations from the latter regions showed almost the same genetic distance from each other.

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Hongwen Huang, Desmond R. Layne, and Don E. Riemenschneider

Foundation) for stimulating discussions and information shared related to the work reported herein. Terrih Turner, a Kentucky State Univ. undergraduate student, is also gratefully acknowledged for assistance in allozyme analysis. The cost of publishing this

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J.A. Beaver and A.F. Iezzoni

Inheritance for seven enzyme loci was determined in seeds produced from crosses and self-pollinations involving four sour cherry parents and one open-pollinated ground cherry (P. fruticosa Pall.) parent. Segregation data were used to identify allozymes and determine whether sour cherry is a naturally occurring allo- or autotetraploid. Three allozymes were identified at the 6-Pgd-1 locus, and two were identified at each of the following loci: Pgi-2, Lap-1, Adh-1, Idh-2, Pgm-2, and 6-Pgd-2. Segregating allozyme patterns for the diagnostic loci Idh-2, Pgm-2, 6-Pgd-1, and 6-Pgd-2 tit disomic inheritance models and thus confirmed the allotetraploid hypothesis for sour cherry. Chi-square tests of independence between loci indicated that Pgi-2, Adh-1, Idh-2, 6-Pgd-1, and 6-Pgd-2 were not linked.

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Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Mark P. Widrlechner, and Lester A. Wilson

The inheritance of five allozymes was studied in anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) by analyzing the progeny of controlled crosses. The loci studied [Cat-1, Got-2, Pgm-2, Tpi-1, and Tpi-2] were scored by using starch gel electrophoresis. Segregation analyses of families polymorphic at each of these loci support the following hypotheses: Cat-1 is controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles; Got-2 is controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles coding for dimeric protein products; Pgm-2 is controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles coding for monomeric proteins; and Tpi-1 and Tpi-2 are each controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles coding dimeric protein products. Distorted segregation ratios were observed in some families segregating for Got-2 and Pgm-2. No linkages were detected among any of the cosegregating loci.

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Larry D. Knerr and Jack E. Staub

The available U. S. Cucumis sativus germplasm collection (754 Plant Introductions) was electrophoretically screened for genetic diversity using 39 enzymes representing a total of 57 loci. Polymorphisms were observed at 18 loci which included g2dh, gpi1, gpi2, gr1, gr2, idh, mdh1, mdh2, mdh3, mpi2, pep-la2, pep-pap2, per4, pgd1, pgd2, pgm1, pgm3, and skdh. Appropriate crosses were set up to verify the inheritance of and test linkages among these loci. Four allozyme linkage groups have currently been identified. Representative linkages and their genetic distances include: gpi1 - mdh3 (20); pgm1 - pgd1 (25); and g2dh - pgd2 (19). Additionally, crosses were made to marker stocks to test for linkages between some allozyme loci and loci coding for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose, long hypocotyl, divided leaf, short petiole, glabrous, compact plant, determinate, little leaf, and bitter free (bi).

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Feishi Luan and Zhanyong Sun

The purpose of this study was to analyze the genetic relationship by using morphological, biochemical, and molecular markers. Sixty accessions of green bean [Phaseolusvulgaris (L.)], including 43 from North China, 13 from the International Center for Tropic Agriculture, and four from Poland, were collected and divided into three groups: cultivated determinate (35), cultivated indeterminate (12), and semi-wild determinate (13). Dendrograms were constructed based on the genetic similarity and distance analysis of these 60 accessions by using biological characters, allozyme, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The 60 accessions were classified into two groups based on the genetic relationship examined in their biological characters. The cultivated indeterminate formed one group, and cultivated determinate and semi-wild determinate belonged to another group. Ten allozymes with 25 polymorphic loci divided the 60 accessions into nine groups, i.e., five groups for cultivated determinate, two groups for cultivated indeterminate, and two groups for semi-wild determinate. Twenty-nine RAPD markers with 314 polymorphic loci divided the 60 accessions into 13 groups, i.e., nine groups for cultivated determinate, three groups for cultivated indeterminate, and one group for semi-wild determinate. The average genetic similarities and genetic distance of intra-group and inter-groups were 0.81 and 0.75, and 0.19 and 0.24, respectively. Ten bands were characterized as specifically associated with cultivated determinate, one band specific for cultivated indeterminate, and one band for semi-wild. These biochemical and molecular markers provided more information than morphological markers. Allozyme and RAPD markers can be used as an available tool to exploit green bean germplasm in the future.

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Hongrun Yu and Thomas M. Davis

As part of a strawberry (Fragaria sp.) genome mapping project, we studied the linkage relationship between runnering and phosphoglucoisomerase PGI-2 allozymes in diploid strawberry. The respective r and Pgi-2 loci were found linked with a recombination frequency of 18.1% ± 1.6%(a map distance of 18.9 ± 1.6 cM). This is the second reported linkage in strawberry. The linkage between runnering and phosphoglucoisomerase allozymes, if conserved at the octoploid level, might provide a means of marker-assisted selection for the nonrunnering and bushy branching growth habits in cultivated strawberry. Severe distortion of monogenic segregation ratios was observed for runnering and PGI-2, and also for an unlinked locus for shikimate dehydrogenase allozymes. Alleles from the perpetual flowering (alpine F. vesca) parents were favored in this distortion. This phenomenon should be considered in future genetic studies using crosses between alpine and nonalpine strawberries.

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Warren F. Lamboy, Jing Yu, Phil L. Forsline, and Norman F. Weeden

One of the primary progenitors of the cultivated apple is Malus sieversii L., a species native to the forested regions of central Asia. Despite the horticultural importance of M. sieversii, little is known about genetic variation in this species. In this study, allozyme diversity at 18 loci was determined for 259 seedlings belonging to 31 sib families, each consisting of the set of offspring from a different open-pollinated maternal (seed) parent. Maternal parents belonged to 14 populations from four geographic regions. Genetic diversity statistics were computed from the resulting allele and phenotype frequencies. Cluster analysis of sib families showed that there was some grouping based on geographic region, but 16 of the sib families were most closely related to sib families from other regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 85% of the enzyme variability was due to differences among sib families within populations and 15% was due to differences among regions. No variability could be assigned to differences among populations within regions. In addition, no alleles were found that were fixed in a region and unique to that region. These results suggest that plants belonging to M. sieversii effectively form a panmictic population. Consequently, a thorough sampling of a few large populations will efficiently capture most of the genetic diversity present in wild M. sieversii.

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Hongwen Huang and Desmond R. Layne

The pawpaw is the largest tree fruit native to the United States and the only temperate member of the tropical Custard Apple family (Annonaceae). In 1995, Kentucky State Univ. was established as the USDA-ARS-National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Asimina spp. Seedling trees from 400 pawpaw accessions representing 70 distinct geographic regions from 17 states are currently being grown at our research farm. In a preliminary study, 18 pawpaw cultivars were assayed in 30 enzyme systems using an isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide slab gel system of pH 4-9. Twelve enzymes produced high resolution without tissue specificity and were further used for evaluation of allozyme diversity of geographic populations. Degree of genetic diversity within populations and differentiation between populations as evaluated by the expected heterozygosity (He), the proportion of polymorphic loci (P), the average number of alleles per locus (A), chi-squared analysis of allele frequency heterogeneity, Nei's standard genetic distance (D), and identity (I) will be discussed. Dendrograms were generated by cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method to demonstrate the relationships of geographic populations in the 17 states evaluated. The strategy for germplasm conservation and cultivar development through breeding will also be discussed.