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Mary Hockenberry Meyer and Anna F.G. Barker

Paper no. 22,370 of the scientific journal series, Univ. of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be

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Donald J. Merhaut, Lea Corkidi, Maren Mochizuki, Toan Khuong, Julie Newman, Ben Faber, Oleg Daugovish and Sonya Webb

Like other parts of the United States, impairment of water quality by agriculture is a major concern in California. In Ventura County, the Calleguas Creek ( Fig. 1 ) and the Santa Clara River ( Fig. 2 ) watersheds have 50,000 and 60,000 irrigated

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Fu Cheng, Qingxi Chen, Mengmeng Gu and Donghui Peng

Agricultural extension in China provides technology and applications related to all processes during agriculture production through experimentation, demonstration, training, and consulting ( Yu, 2009 ). Agricultural extension worldwide functions as

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Michael P. O'Neill and James P. Dobrowolski

not available. Since the 1940s, agriculture (we use the term agriculture to represent the broadest interpretation of food, feed, fiber, and other goods and services) has enjoyed a period of unparalleled growth in production ( Wiebe, 2003 ). Much of

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Daniel Drost, Gilbert Long and Kimberlee Hales

Funding for this study was provided by the Utah Dept. of Agriculture, Salt Lake City, and Utah Agricultural Experiment Station journal no. 5042. The cost of publishing this paper is defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under

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Robert W. McMahon, Richard K. Lindquist and Harry A. Hoitink

The Ohio State University Agricultural Technical Institute, 1328 Dover Road, Wooster, OH 44691.

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A-Young Lee, Seon-Ok Kim and Sin-Ae Park

In South Korea, urban agriculture is defined as the cultivation of crops and ornamental plants, and the cultivation of insects and animals using various living spaces in urban areas ( Korea Ministry of Government Legislation, 2017 ). In the United

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T.K. Hartz

139 ORAL SESSION 38 (Abstr. 645–650) Sustainable Agriculture–Vegetables

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Alexandra G. Stone, Danielle D. Treadwell, Alice K. Formiga, John P.G. McQueen, Michelle M. Wander, James Riddle, Heather M. Darby and Debra Heleba

eOrganic is the organic agriculture CoP and resource area for the national web-based extension community of land-grant university content providers, eXtension. eOrganic was initiated as a CoP in 2007 (the first eXtension CoPs were initiated in 2006

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Mike Murray, Bob Beede, Bill Weir and Jack Williams

Physiological effects on plant growth caused by the plant hormone ethylene have been noted for many years. More than 100 years ago, workers noted that illuminating gas or broken gas mains had deleterious effects on surrounding trees or plants. It was not until the 1960s that scientists documented that plant growth may be manipulated by applying ethylene. Some of the biological effects since noted include premature defoliation, fruit maturation ripening, induction of flowering, stimulation of sprouting or germination, and shortening of plant height. These effects are noted on a wide variety of agricultural crops, including vegetables, field crops, tree crops, and ornamentals. Ethylene is a gas and dissipates rapidly, and, thus, does not lend itself to field application. In the 1960s, the product ethephon [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid] was developed. When taken up by the plant, ethephon is converted to ethylene in the cells and becomes available for physiological interactions. Because ethephon precipitates a wide variety of biological reactions, application technology becomes extremely important. Factors such as plant growth stage, plant stress status, plant foliage spray coverage, ethephon rates, and environmental conditions determine the responses obtained. An example is provided by processing tomatoes, where the desired response is to maximize fruit maturity enhancement and minimize premature defoliation—both ethylene responses. We have selected five agricultural applications of ethephon as examples of how plant growth may be altered. These are: increased boll opening in cotton; enhanced pistillate flower induction in hybrid squash seed; accelerated fruit maturity in processing tomatoes; enhanced hull splitting in walnuts; and reduced lodging in wheat. Each of these applications, and others, are common in California agriculture. Brevity necessitates providing only a summary of relevant applied research activities, which are not intended to be complete or thorough. Details on specific ethephon applications may be obtained from that particular researcher.