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Kenneth E. Conway, John M. Dole, Theresa L. Bosma, and Niels O. Maness

Field seedling emergence of four african marigold (Tagetes erecta) breeding lines, A-975, E-1236, I-822, and `Orange Lady', was examined using three or four spring sowing dates and either osmotic or solid matrix priming. Delayed sowing decreased emergence time. Sowing from middle to late April [average soil temperatures 77.0 to 84.2 °F (25 to 29 °C)] resulted in the highest total emergence percentages. Greater fl ower quantities [4.9 to 5.1 million/acre (12.11 to 12.60 million/ha)] and estimated yield [7.5 to 10.8 tons/acre (16.81 to 24.20 t·ha-1)] indicate mid to late April is the optimum time period for direct sowing unprimed seed in the southern Great Plains. Differences between lines were evident in emergence parameters and fl ower harvest data for each year examined, but results were inconsistent from year to year. However, A-975 and E-1236 produced harvestable fl owers most quickly, about 15 d before I-822, which could result in an additional harvest during a season. Osmotic priming of E-1236 and I-822 seed shortened emergence time, increased emergence uniformity, and increased total emergence percentage at early sowing dates as compared to both solid matrix primed and unprimed seed.

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Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly K. Moore

Zonal geraniums (Pelargonium ×hortorum) from seed and african marigolds (Tagetes erecta), which are known to be highly susceptible to Fe toxicity problems, were grown with I, 2, 4, or 6 mm Fe from ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate, FeEDTA, FeDTPA, FeEDDHA, ferric glucoheptonate, or ferrous ammonium sulfate in the subirrigation solution. FeEDTA and FeDTPA were highly toxic to both species, even at the 1 mm rate. Ferrous sulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate caused no visible toxicity symptoms on marigolds, but did reduce dry weights with increasing Fe concentrations. Both materials were slightly to moderately toxic on zonal geraniums. FeEDDHA was only mildly toxic at the 1 mm concentration on both species, but was moderately toxic at the 2 and 4 mm concentrations. Substrate pH was generally negatively correlated with geranium dry weight and visible phytotoxicity ratings, with the least toxic materials, ferrous sulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate, resulting in the lowest substrate pHs and the chelates FeEDTA, FeDTPA, and FeEDDHA the highest pH. The ionic Fe sources, ferrous sulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate, suppressed P uptake in both species, whereas the Fe chelates did not. Fe EDDHA should be considered as an effective and less toxic alternative for the widely used FeEDTA and FeDTPA in the production of these crops.

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Richard O. Kelly and Brent K. Harbaugh

Annual bedding plants comprised 50% of the $4.6 billion wholesale value of United States floricultural crops in 2000. Florida is one of the top wholesale producers of bedding plants in this industry, and in 2000 was number one in the production of potted marigolds. Evaluation of marigold cultivars is vital for continued growth of the industry. We evaluated 84 cultivars of african marigold (Tagetes erecta) and french marigold (T. patula) in replicated class tests at the University of Florida's Gulf Coast Research and Education Center at Bradenton, Fla. (lat. 27°4' N, long. 82°5' W; AHS Heat Zone 10; USDA Cold Hardiness Zone 9b) in Fall 1999. In this report, we provide objective plant measurements of vegetative and floral characteristics as well as six weekly subjective ratings. Subjective ratings were on a 1 to 7 scale with the highest rating of 7 for excellent. In general, cultivars with vegetative and floral ratings ≥5 were considered outstanding, 4 to 4.9 as good performers, and ≤3.9 as fair to poor. These ratings permit readers to evaluate foliage and floral characteristics at different times during the season, and to evaluate performance over time. Cultivars were grouped into classes based on species, plant height, flower type, and flower color. Outstanding cultivars (those cultivars with an overall rating ≥5) and their class were: `Inca Gold' and `Royal Gold' [african marigold (African)—gold class]; `Mesa Orange' and `Royal Orange' (African— orange class); `Inca Yellow', `Mesa Yellow', and `Perfection Yellow' (African—yellow class); `Disco Granada' [french marigold (French) dwarf—single gold/red class], `Disco Flame' (French dwarf—single red/gold class); `Golden Boy' and `Hero Gold' (French dwarf—double gold class); `Bonanza Orange', `Orange Boy', `Girl Orange', `Jacket Orange' (French dwarf—double orange class); `Yellow Boy', `Girl Primrose', and `Jacket Yellow' (French dwarf—double yellow class); `Harmony Boy' (French dwarf— double orange/red class); `Hero Flame' (French dwarf—double red/orange class); `Bonanza Flame Improved' (French dwarf—double red/yellow class); `Legend Gold' (French double— gold class); `Legend Orange Improved' (French—double orange class); `Spry Boy' (French double—yellow/red class); `Durango Bee', `Durango Red', and `Hyper Red/Yellow' (French— double red/yellow class). We believe these cultivars would perform well in the southern U.S. or areas of the world with similar heat and cold hardiness zones.

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Suejin Park, Sarah A. Mills, Youyoun Moon, and Nicole L. Waterland

’ new guinea impatiens, ‘Double Fiesta Ole Purple Stripe’ impatiens, ‘Madness Double Red’ and ‘Wave Pink’ petunia, ‘Antigua Yellow’ and ‘Taishan Orange’ african marigold, and ‘Bonanza Yellow’ french marigold were obtained in 288-plug trays except for

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W. Garrett Owen, Brian E. Jackson, William C. Fonteno, and Brian E. Whipker

substrates because substrate pH was inherently within the range of 5.5 to 6.4 ( Gruda and Schnitzler, 2006 ). Saunders et al. (2005) reported no advantage of amending 100% pine tree substrate (PTS) with limestone for african marigold ( Tagetes erecta

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W. Garrett Owen, Qingwu Meng, and Roberto G. Lopez

culture. Seeds of pansy ‘Matrix Yellow’, petunia ‘Dreams Midnight’, and snapdragon ‘Oh Snap Pink’ were sown into 288-cell (6-mL individual cell volume) plug trays. Seeds of african marigold ‘Moonsong Deep Orange’, potted sunflower ‘Pacino Gold’, and zinnia

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Daedre S. Craig and Erik S. Runkle

:FR ratios control the flowering response of SDPs without the confounding effects of other light wavebands. Materials and Methods Plant material and culture. On 8 Feb. 2011, 7- to 10-d-old seedlings of african marigold ‘American Antigua Yellow’ grown in 288

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Christina Perez, H. Brent Pemberton, and James Altland

plants. Most marigold species have fine-textured, pinnate dark green leaves with golden, orange, yellow, and white flowers. French marigold is a short-stature plant, whereas african marigold is a relatively taller plant ( Valdez-Aguilar et al., 2009a

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Madeline W. Olberg and Roberto G. Lopez

13 (19 Mar. to 25 Mar. 2015), seedlings of ‘Antigua Orange’ african marigold, ‘Hot Cakes White’ stock, and ‘Lilac Flame’ primula in 288-cell (6-mL individual cell volume) plug trays were received at Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN [Purdue (lat

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Philip Busey, Timothy K. Broschat, and Diane L. Johnston

Phenoxy and related herbicides used in turfgrass have the potential for volatilization and movement from treated areas. Three studies assessed potential injury to subtropical landscape plants caused by volatile turf herbicides in polyethylene enclosures. Phenoxy herbicide mixtures were emphasized. There were significant differences among the seven landscape species tested. The most sensitive species were african marigold (Tagetes erecta), joseph's coat (Alternanthera ficoidea), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Severe injury was caused by exposure to herbicides containing 2,4-D isooctyl ester and MCPA isooctyl ester. Exposure to individual active ingredients 2,4-D dimethylamine, dicamba acid, atrazine, and metsulfuron resulted in no injury to the species tested.