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Thomas E. Marler

( Marler and Cruz, 2017 ) because excavation of intact roots for traditional transplant operations was cost-prohibitive. This unprecedented attempt to initiate adventitious roots on large cycad stems resulted in 41% success in adventitious root formation

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Ningguang Dong, Qingmin Wang, Junpei Zhang, and Dong Pei

The relationship between auxin and adventitious root formation has been studied for many years. Indole-3-acetic acid plays a central role in adventitious rooting and was the first plant hormone used to stimulate the rooting of cuttings ( Cooper

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Benjamin E. Deloso, Anders J. Lindström, Frank A. Camacho, and Thomas E. Marler

in the asexual propagation literature. Our objective was to determine the influence of IBA concentrations of 0 to 30 mg·g −1 on the success and speed of adventitious root formation on Z. furfuracea and Z. integrifolia stem cuttings. Materials and

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Allison H. Justice, James E. Faust, and Julia L. Kerrigan

Shoot tip cuttings are a common means of asexual propagation of ornamental plants. After a cutting is removed from the stock plant, it must form adventitious roots to become a new plant. Adventitious root formation is a complex process regulated by

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Carlos A. Lazcano, Fred T. Davies Jr., Sharon A. Duray, Andres Estrada-Luna, and Victor Olalde-Portugal

Mature cladodes of prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia amyclaea Tenore. cv. Reina) were treated with five wounding methods and four concentrations of potassium salt indolebutyric acid (K-IBA) to stimulate adventitious root formation. K-IBA from 4144 to 41,442 μm (1000 to 10,000 mg·L-1) increased root number and root dry weight; however, root length was decreased at 41,442 μm (10,000 mg·L-1). Root number and root dry weight were higher with wounding methods that had larger wounded surface areas. K-IBA altered rooting polarity and stimulated adventitious root formation along the wounded cladode surfaces. Treatments without suberization had a higher percentage of rotted cladodes. This research validates the commercial practice in Mexico of suberizing cladodes early in the propagation cycle. Auxin application could be of commercial benefit for enhanced rooting in the clonal regeneration of new selections for prickly-pear cactus orchards. The wounding methods and auxin treatments utilized make an excellent classroom demonstration for manipulating rooting polarity.

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Carlos A. Lazcano, Fred T. Davies Jr., Andrés A. Estrada-Luna, Sharon A. Duray, and Victor Olalde-Portugal

Mature cladodes of prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia amyclaea Tenore. `Reina') were treated with five wounding methods and four concentrations of potassium salt indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA) to stimulate adventitious root formation. The wounding method and K-IBA had highly significant effects on root number and root dry mass of cladodes. Interaction between K-IBA and wounding methods showed that greater root number was obtained at the higher auxin concentrations and with wounding methods that had the greatest cut surface area. K-IBA concentrations from 4,144 to 41,442 μm (1,000 to 10,000 mg·L-1) increased root dry mass. Only the wounding method affected rotting of cladodes. Treatments allowing suberization had a higher percentage of nonrotted cladodes. This research validates the commercial practice of allowing cladodes to suberize early in the propagation cycle. K-IBA altered rooting polarity and stimulated adventitious root formation along the wounded cladode surfaces. The vertical nonsuberized wounding methods and auxin treatments are an excellent classroom demonstration for manipulating rooting polarity. Auxin application and wounding could be of commercial benefit for enhanced rooting in the clonal regeneration of new selections for prickly-pear cactus orchards.

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James R. McKenna and Ellen G. Sutter

The use of auxin-impregnated toothpicks stimulated adventitious root formation in genotypes of Juglans `Paradox' that had been backcrossed to J. regia. These genotypes were selected as potential rootstocks because of improved tolerance to cherry leaf roll virus and Phytophthora spp. Other auxin applications including quick dips and talc formulations had little or no effect. The use of toothpicks lowered the concentration of IBA necessary for root initiation compared to previously reported results using quick dips. Toothpicks were inserted transversely into holes drilled 1 to 2 cm above the base of cuttings. Callus and roots always formed at the location of the toothpicks rather than at the base of the cutting. Roots were formed using this method in simple layering, hardwood, and semi-hardwood cuttings. Of all the cuttings that rooted, 90% rooted with toothpicks whereas only 10% rooted using a quick dip. This method may have potential for increasing the efficiency of rooting other difficult-to-root plants.

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Rolston St. Hilaire, Carlos A. Fierro Berwart, and Carlos A. Pérez-Muñoz

Mussaendas (Mussaenda spp.) are ornamental shrubs, and some cultivars are difficult to root. This study was conducted to explore how adventitious roots initiate and develop in the cultivar Rosea and to determine if anatomical events are associated with difficulty in rooting stem cuttings. Stem cuttings were treated with 5, 10, 15 mmol IBA, or distilled water, and sampled every 2 days over 26 days to observe adventitious root formation and development. Adventitious roots initiated from phloem parenchyma cells. Cuttings treated with 15 mmol IBA had a mean of 18 root primordia per basal 1 cm of cutting after 10 days. Primordia were absent in nontreated cuttings at 10 days. These results suggest that nontreated cuttings are difficult to root because few primordia are produced. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Rolston St. Hilaire and Carlos A. Fierro Berwart

Mussaendas (Mussaenda spp.) are ornamental shrubs, and some cultivars are difficult to root. This study was conducted to explore how adventitious roots initiate and develop in the cultivar Rosea, and to determine if anatomical events are associated with difficulty in rooting stem cuttings. Stem cuttings were treated with 5, 10, 15 mm 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), or distilled water, and sampled every 2 days over 26 days to observe adventitious root formation and development. For analysis by light microscopy, the basal 1 cm of cuttings was embedded in wax and stained with safranin-fast green. Adventitious roots initiated from phloem parenchyma cells and from basal callus in nontreated cuttings. Cuttings treated with 15 mm IBA had a mean of 18 root primordia per basal 1 cm of cutting after 10 days. Root primordia were not observed in non-treated cuttings at 10 days. Root primordia that developed in non-treated cuttings lacked clear vascular connections. These results suggest that non-treated cuttings are difficult to root because few primordia are produced.

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Jun Chen, Dengru Wu, Francis H. Witham, Charles W. Heuser, and Richard N. Arteca

Adventitious root formation (rooting) in `Berken' mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Rwiclz.] cuttings is stimulated by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To understand the molecular events that occur during IAA-induced adventitious root initiation, a λgt11 cDNA library was made from mungbean hypocotyls treated with 500 μm IAA for 3 hours and differentially screened. Two cDNAs MII-3 and MII-4 were isolated. Southern analysis revealed that both cDNAs are encoded by different genes. Expression studies showed different patterns for both genes. Both MII-3 and MII-4 were highly expressed in IAA treated hypocotyls, whereas MII-4 was also induced in IAA treated epicotyls. There was no expression of either MII-3 or MII-4 in control or IAA treated leaves. With increasing concentrations of IAA from 100 to 1000 μm there was an increase in the average root number per cutting as well as a stimulation in MII-3 and MII-4. Both MII-3 and MII-4 showed a stimulation in expression 4 hours following treatment with 500 μm IAA reaching a maximum from 4 to 8 hours followed by a decline thereafter. Basal expression of MII-3 was evident between 2 and 8 hours, whereas, a high degree of basal expression was found with MII-4 from 1 to 8 hours followed by a sharp decline. Cycloheximide (50 μm) dramatically reduced rooting and MII-3 expression, whereas MII-4 was only slightly affected.