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Keelin Blaith Purcell, Robert E. Lyons, Lynn D. Dierking and Helen Fischel

gardens and adolescents can be productive partners. Engaging teenagers can help to develop new audiences, enhance future visitation, and cultivate potential donors and, using the unique youth perspective, can greatly contribute to the variety and

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Barbara Berge and Virginia I. Lohr

Studies have shown that many people prefer landscapes with vegetation over those devoid of plants. Few studies have looked specifically at adolescents or people of different ethnic heritages. Understanding preferences of such groups could help in designing horticultural education programs for these populations. In this study, high school students were asked to rate their preferences for a series of plant-dominated and urban-dominated slides.

Students generally gave higher ratings to the plant scenes than the urban scenes, indicating that they preferred the plant scenes. Their preferences were similar to what would be predicted from studies with adults. Hispanic students rated urban scenes and formal plant scenes, such as a garden with sculptured shrubs, significantly higher than did Anglo students. Hispanics rated informal scenes, such as a deciduous forest with no ground cover, significantly lower than did Anglo students.

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Carol Cammack, Tina M. Waliczek and Jayne M. Zajicek

The Green Brigade horticultural program is a community-based treatment and diversion program for juvenile offenders. The objective of this study was to determine if participation in the Green Brigade program improved the self-esteem, locus of control, interpersonal relationships and attitude toward school of participating juvenile offenders. Participants in the Green Brigade program had significantly lower scores than the comparative group on measures of self-esteem, interpersonal relationships and attitude toward school prior to and after completion of the Green Brigade program. Although the Green Brigade participants' scores were significantly lower than the comparative group's scores, the means were still considered `normal' for their age group. However, adolescents participating in coed sessions, where the hands-on activities involved plant materials, displayed more positive interpersonal relationship scores than participants in an all male session where the hands-on activities focused on the installation of hardscape materials and a lack of plant materials. No significant differences were found in rates of repeated crimes of juvenile offenders participating in the Green Brigade program when compared to juvenile offenders participating in traditional probationary programming.

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Carol Cammack, Tina M. Waliczek and Jayne M. Zajicek

The Green Brigade horticultural program is a community-based treatment and diversion program for juvenile offenders. The program is used for vocational training and rehabilitation. The objectives of this study were to determine if participation in the Green Brigade program improved the horticultural knowledge and the environmental attitudes of participating juvenile offenders. Participants of the Green Brigade program significantly improved their horticultural knowledge exam scores as a result of participating in the program. Participants also had significant improvements in their environmental attitude scores after completing the program. However, participants attending the Green Brigade program less than 60% of the time had significantly more negative environmental attitude scores than participants attending more frequently. Further analyses showed the program was equally effective at improving environmental attitude scores for all participants regardless of gender, ethnicity, age or grade in school.

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Joanna Brown, Gregory Colson, Claire B. de La Serre and Nicholas Magnan

depression ( Ebbeling et al., 2002 ). In 2012, ≈31.3% of American children and adolescents aged 10–17 years were obese. Within this number, there are significant racial and regional disparities. In 2012, obesity prevalence was higher among Hispanic Americans

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Ahmad Hassan, Chen Qibing, Jiang Tao, Lv Bing-Yang, Li Nian, Shu Li, Li Yu Tng, Jun Zhuo Li, Shang Guan Ziyue and Muhammad Sohaib Tahir

( Lai et al., 2013 ). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents worldwide. In Asia, the overall prevalence of smartphone ownership by adolescents is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea ( Mak et al., 2014b ). Participation

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5.8 mol·m −2 ·d −1 . However, plants had the greatest weight, leaf area, and branching when they were grown under at least 10 mol·m −2 ·d −1 . These DLIs are attainable for growers in most regions of the U.S. without supplemental lighting. Adolescent

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Summer Garden Programs Improve Youth Food Preferences Childhood and adolescent obesity is on the rise in the U.S. School lunch programs and after-school gardens are increasingly common ways to steer students towards healthier food choices. However

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Amy L. McFarland, Danielle E. Hammond, Jayne M. Zajicek and Tina M. Waliczek

observe. Primary socialization theory ( Oetting and Donnermeyer, 1998 ) states that, “In Western society the primary socialization sources through the critical adolescent period are usually the family, the school, and peer clusters.” Parental attitudes

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Sin-Ae Park, Ho-Sang Lee, Kwan-Suk Lee, Ki-Cheol Son and Candice A. Shoemaker

household and garden activities in 55-to 65-year-old males Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 94 476 486 Harrell, J.S. McMurray, R.G. Baggett, C.D. Pennell, M.L. Pearce, P.F. Bangdiwala, S.I. 2005 Energy costs of physical activities in children and adolescents Med. Sci