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Colleen Kennedy, Luis F. Osorio, Natalia A. Peres, and Vance M. Whitaker

.39. When pedigree information was included in the model, heritability estimates increased to H 2 = 0.50 and h 2 = 0.45, mainly as a result of an increase in the additive genetic component. Lifshitz et al. (2007) later conducted a replicated greenhouse

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Jeffrey A. Anderson

individual solvent molecules with cosolvent molecules, mixtures of different cosolvents should have additive effects on protein stability. The objective of the present study was to use a protein thermostability assay developed using pepper leaf extracts

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L.E. Hinesley and Sylvia M. Blankenship

Several floral and tree preservatives were evaluated to determine their effect on postharvest needle retention of Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.], an important Christmas tree species. Clorox (sodium hypochlorite) and aspirin (salicylic acid) caused massive needle loss, and three of the six commercial additives increased needle loss significantly, No treatment was better than water alone.

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Erik B.G. Feibert, Clinton C. Shock, and Lamont D. Saunders

Eleven treatments in 1999 and thirteen treatments in 2000 containing single or combined nonconventional additives from eight manufacturers were compared with an untreated check for their effect on onion (Alliumcepa L.) yield and quality, and for their economic efficiency. The nonconventional additives were tested at commercial rates using the methods of application provided by the manufacturers. The products were applied to soil, foliage, or both. The treatments, including the check, were incorporated into standard cultural practices for onions. All treatments (with exception of an organic fertilizer treatment), including the check, were fertilized based on soil tests. In both years, none of the products evaluated significantly increased onion yield or quality compared to the untreated check. The organic fertilizer treatment, tested in 1999 only, resulted in significantly lower onion yield and size compared to the check. At the application rates used in this study, most of the products supplied plant nutrients or humic acid in amounts insufficient to expect improvements in crop production.

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José Luis Chaves-Gómez, Alba Marina Cotes-Prado, Sandra Gómez-Caro, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

environment. Because of these issues, alternatives to the use of agrochemicals, such as biological control and the application of organic additives, have gained interest recently ( Moreno-Velandia et al., 2018 ; Pal and Gardener, 2006 ). Organic additives are

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Royal G. Fader, Patricia Luque, and Martin J. Bukovac

Foliar application of plant growth regulators (PGR) is an established horticultural practice. We are using a finite dose system to examine diffusion of 14C-labeled PGRs, primarily napththaleneacetic acid (NAA), from aqueous droplets and deposits through enzymatically isolated plant cuticles (CM) as affected by spray adjuvant chemistry, solution pH, and epicuticular wax. Recent studies have focused on a nonbuffered aqueous medium, which approximates field application conditions. Despite the negligible buffering capacity of the spray solution, there were significant differences in NAA diffusion with solution pH. At pH 3.2, NAA (pKa = 4.2) diffusion was two-fold greater than at pH 5.2. Additives (surfactants, urea, and urea:NH4NO3, 1:1 mixture) in the spray solutions increased the initial rate and absolute amount of NAA diffused. The polyethoxalated octylphenol surfactant (Triton-X) TX-45 (EO 5.5) enhanced rate and quantity of NAA diffusion. This enhancement was observed with CM, but not after removal of the epicuticular waxes, implicating an interaction between surfactant and waxes. Urea, over a four-fold concentration range, increased NAA diffusion 5% to 31% after 144 h. The urea:NH4NO3 mixture increased NAA diffusion to a greater extent at pH 5.2 (+136%) than at pH 3.2 (+8.4%) after 144 h.

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Virginia R. Walter*

A 100 parts per million solution of potassium silicate was added to the nutrient solution of well established, hydroponically grown `Kardinal' rose plants. No significant effects of silicon were determined on post harvest life of the rose flowers harvested over a 3-month period as compared to flowers harvested from control plants grown without the silicon additive. Silicon additive did have a significant positive effect on the length of harvested stems.

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Jason Grabosky and Nina Bassuk

CU soil is a material primarily composed of clay loam soil and crushed stone designed for use under pavement to promote street tree root growth in a durable pavement section, such as sidewalks or parking lots. One concern is the low total soil fraction from which tree roots can meet nutritive demands. At issue is the long-term nutrient management of street trees once the root zone has been rendered inaccessible due to the pavement wearing surface, although in 3-year field tests, there were no differences found between a CU soil material and an agricultural field control. CU soil treatments were produced in a factorial design with a patent applied for processed humate additive, and a nursery production fertilization treatment. Bare-root seedlings of Salix nigra Marsh, Platanus × acerifolia Willd., Ginkgo biloba L., and cell plugs of Ficus benjamina L. were grown in treatment containers for 5 months. A Minolta SPAD-502 was used to evaluate relative chlorophyll content as an indication of leaf tissue nutrient levels. Plant growth as a function of new growth dry weight was calculated. Soil samples were collected at the end of the study and were analyzed to evaluate the impact of humate admixes in nutrient availability. The fertilization treatments positively influenced leaf color and growth for all species. The CU soil control plants displayed significantly lower chlorophyll levels, but overall growth differences were less dramatic—insignificant in some cases. The humate additive did not consistently affect leaf color. The humate additive alone did not affect plant growth, but a significant positive interaction with the fertilizer treatment was evident for Platanus and Ficus. The positive interaction was insignificant in Salix and non-existent in Ginkgo.

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Thomas E. Marler and Hiphil S. Clemente

Trade winds occur throughout the year and drought occurs seasonally in many papaya (Carica papaya L.) production regions. We conducted four studies with `Known You 1' and `Sunrise' papaya seedlings to determine the combined influence of wind and water deficit on growth. We conducted three additional experiments to determine plant response to wind within a continuous dose range of 0 to 2.5 m·s–1. The main effects of wind and irrigation significantly reduced most response variables, such as dry weight components, leaf area, and height. However, the two factors acted independently of each other for every measure of plant growth. Thus, there was no departure from simple effects of an additive model for each main factor. The relationship between plant growth and wind between 0 and 2.5 m·s–1 could be described by a quadratic model. Results indicate that the influence of wind on plant growth cannot be studied without controlling or quantifying soil moisture among treatment groups. Practically, our results indicate that wind protection of young papaya plants may be warranted more so in the dry season than in the wet season or under sufficient irrigation practices.

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Royal G. Fader and Martin J. Bukovac

The plant cuticle is the prime barrier to penetration of foliar-applied plant growth regulators (PGR). Spray additives of various chemistries are frequently included in a tank mix to increase performance of PGRs. We have reported that urea and ammonium nitrate (AN) enhance transcuticular penetration of 14C-labeled NAA (pKa 4.2) from aqueous droplets (pH 5.2) and their subsequent deposits through enzymatically isolated tomato fruit cuticular membranes (CM). Studies on effects of Triton × surfactants on AN-enhanced NAA penetration showed an additional 25% increase in NAA penetration and the AN:surfactant interaction was significant. Also, some alkylamine hydrochlorides increased NAA penetration. Studies comparing NAA penetration through tomato and pepper fruit and Citrus leaf CM in the presence of 8 mM AN or 8 mM ethylamine HCl showed that all three species exhibited the same trend for penetration at 120 h: ethylamine HCl > AN > NAA only. Comparative NAA penetration for CM of the three species was pepper > Citrus > tomato, with significant differences (P > 0.006) in NAA penetration, as indexed by initial slope and penetration after 120 h. On addition of AN, NAA penetration was greater (range 3% to 40%) for Citrus and pepper CM than tomato CM. When ethylamine HCl was added, NAA penetration through Citrus and pepper CM was less (–37 and –27%, respectively) than tomato CM as measured by the initial slope, but 6% and 11%, respectively, more than tomato CM for penetration after 120 h. The differences in NAA penetration among the three species cannot be explained by cuticle thickness, since pepper and tomato CM are 2.5- to 3.5-fold thicker than Citrus CM. We have suggested that the enhanced NAA penetration mediated by AN and ethylamine HCl (and other alkylamine HCl examined) may be related to their hygroscopic properties leading to greater deposit hydration. The significance of the differences among the species CM and surfactant-enhanced NAA penetration will be discussed, in relation to diffusion in the non-living, non-metabolic plant cuticle.