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Eric T. Stafne and John R. Clark

In a database system that allows for quick and accurate querying, PediTrack generates pedigrees in an easily understandable format. Other pedigree programs are available commercially, but are often expensive, specific to certain organisms, or unadaptable for specific programmatic use. PediTrack allows a personal computer (PC) user with Microsoft Access version 2000 or higher to use the simple program without charge. This software is widely available and easily adaptable to a variety of breeding program functions. PediTrack does not perform any calculations, so the initial program size is small (<2 megabytes). The program consists solely of the basic framework for housing pedigree information and reporting pedigrees based on those records.

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Peter J. Stoffella, Salvador J. Locascio, Teresa K. Howe, Steve M. Olson, Kenneth D. Shuler and Charles S. Vavrina

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars were grown in nine Florida environments to evaluate phenotypic stability of marketable fruit yield (t-ha-') and mean fruit size (g/fruit). A stable cultivar excelled for a particular trait when grown in either favorable or unfavorable environments. A stable cultivar for a given trait was defined as one with an individual mean greater than the grand mean (mean of all cultivars) (x > X), a regression coefficient (b1) ≤ 1 (individual genotypic mean regressed against environmental means), nonsignificant deviation mean squares from regression (S2d), coefficient of linear determination (R2) > 0.50, and coefficient of variation (cv) < the pooled cv. `Ssupersweet 860', `Whopper Improved', and `Ranger' were stable for mean marketable fruit weights and fruit size, and `Ssupersweet 860' and `Whopper Improved' were stable for mean fruit size. Bell pepper cultivars were differentiated for phenotypic stability of yield and fruit size or adaptability to diverse environments. Therefore, through stability analyses, bell pepper plant breeders can identify cultivars or select advanced breeding lines that express adaptability for fruit yields or size to diverse environmental conditions or cultural practices.

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Hirotoshi Tsuda, Hisato Kunitake, Yo Aoki, Akiko Oyama, Takuya Tetsumura, Haruki Komatsu and Katsunori Yoshioka

. corymbosum section Cyanococcus ) ( Tsuda et al., 2013 ). These intersectional hybrids might be useful as a good germplasm source to breed highbush blueberries that are more adaptable to a broad range of soil conditions, including higher pH. Field and

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Pablo Rodriguez, Juan Camilo Henao, Guillermo Correa and Ana Aristizabal

., 2016 ). Hodgkin (1928) reported OC in fruit to be a maturity index. However, because OC measurement is not easily adaptable to field conditions, different studies and protocols conclude that DM can be used as a standard indicator for harvest maturity

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Alexander Q. Susko, Timothy A. Rinehart, James M. Bradeen and Stan C. Hokanson

). This reduction in iron uptake on high-pH or calcareous soils leads to chlorosis and decreased photosynthetic capacity, which over time reduces vigor and increases mortality of deciduous azaleas in the landscape ( Galle, 1974 ). Improving adaptability to

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Darrell Sparks

Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] is indigenous to the Mississippi River drainage system of the United States. Climate in the native pecan region ranges from humid to semiarid and from mild to harsh winters. Rainfall is bimodal with peaks in March to April and in August to September. Pecan is site specific and is the climax tree species on loamy, well drained, first bottom river land with a relatively high water table. Detrimental effects from pecan's shade intolerance from its more vigorous, sympatric species are minimized as these species are specific to differ sites. Pecan's deep and phreatophytic rooting habit ensures soil moisture during drought periods and facilitates pecan's survival in semiarid regions. Root development in the humus-surface layer ensures nutrient uptake from the most nutrient rich layer of the soil and, when the lower soil profile is saturated, aeration for the roots and water and nutrient uptake. The bimodal rain pattern replenishes soil profile moisture and its timing ensures seed germination, stand establishment, well-developed seed, and minimal drought stress. Natural selection for freeze tolerance and for minimum fruit development time allows survival in areas with harsh winters and short growing seasons. Regulation of seed germination and budbreak by heating and chilling results in pecan being native in cold and warm climates, greatly increasing the native range. The northern limit for pecan is dictated by heat units; the southern limit is restricted by lack of bimodal rains and vivipary. Reproductive stress is caused by the high lipid content of seed, but is counteracted by a long juvenile growth period of the seedling, by a small nut size and low percentage kernel, and by “off” production years of the tree. Nut and percentage kernel decrease as the growing season decreases which contributes to species survival in geographical regions with a short growing season. Selection for small nuts with low percentage kernel is enhanced by predators. Tree reserves are depleted by heavy production during “on” years and are replenished during “off”years. Perpetuation of pecan forests is apparently from sib/half sib seedlings following predator satiation while dissemination into new areas may be mainly by predators. Pecan and its pests successfully co-exist. Major defense against fruit feeders is escape in time, leaf feeders by biological associations and accommodation, and leaf diseases by confrontation. Heterozygous progenies from cross-pollination provide ample genetic diversity for continuous pecan selection to endure pressures imposed throughout a wide climatic range. Ecological adaptions within native pecan forests should be used in developing and maintaining commercial pecan orchards.

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W. L. Corley and A. E. Smith Jr.

Eighty horticultural wildflower taxa were evaluated for performance at three locations over three years in Georgia (USDA climatic zones 7-9). Plant performance and persistence were rated as superior perennial/reseeding annual, secondary perennial, annual, and unadapted. Length of bloom season for each species was determined at each location. Forty-eight species were rated as superior, 11 as secondary, 14 annual, and seven were not adapted. From these data, specialty mixes for meadow gardens, roadside beautification, landscape color, and native plant restoration areas have been formulated for use in cost-efficient landscape plantings. The mixes contain 10-15 species with overlapping bloom seasons to provide color during most of the growing season of eight months.

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Gregory L. Reighard and Terry Guinn

An Asian pcar variety trial planted in 1989 near Columbia, South Carolina was evaluated for growth, productivity, and disease resistance for 4 years. A total of 13 cultivars were observed. The Chinese types Ya Li and Shin Li reached full bloom in mid-March 2 weeks before the Japanese types. The latest blooming cultivars were Choju and Twentieth Century. Shinsei, Shin Li, and Ya Li were the most vigorous cultivars, whereas Niitaka, Shinko, and Shinsui were the least vigorous. Most cultivars produced suckers on the Betulaefolia rootstock; however, few suckers were observed for Chojuro, Shinseiki, Shinko, and Ya Li. Fruit production began in the third year, and after the fourth year Shinseiki, Twentieth Century, Choju, Shinko, and Kosui were the most productive cultivars (8.1-18.2 kg/tree). Chinese types were not precocious but did produce the largest fruit (203-270 g). Choju ripened the earliest (early July), and the Chinese types ripened the latest (late August). Fireblight had infected few trees after 4 years and still was not a problem at this location.

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahman Shafii, Jeffrey C. Stark, Bahar Fallahi and Saad L. Hafez

Cane growth, leaf blade area, blade and petiole fresh and dry weights and mineral nutrients of six grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars were evaluated in 2000 and 2001 under climatic conditions of southwestern Idaho. The cultivars were: `Barbera 02', `Cabernet Sauvignon 02', `Cabernet Sauvignon 04', `Chardonnay 29', `Merlot 01', and `Sangiovese 04'. No differences were found in cane growth of different cultivars. `Sangiovese 04' and `Merlot 01' had larger leaf area and heavier leaves (both blades and petioles) and higher concentrations of blade nitrogen (N), while `Merlot 01' and `Chardonnay 29' had higher petiole nitrate-N than all other cultivars. `Merlot 01' had relatively the highest potassium (K) concentrations in both blade and petiole tissues. `Chardonnay 29' had lower concentration of calcium (Ca) and `Sangiovese 04' had lower concentrations of magnesium (Mg) in both blade and petiole tissues than other cultivars although differences were not always significant. `Barbera 02' had higher blade iron (Fe) and tended to have higher blade copper (Cu) than other cultivars. However, `Chardonnay 29' had higher petiole Fe than `Barbera 02', `Cabernet Sauvignon 04', and `Sangiovese 04'. `Merlot 01' had higher blade manganese (Mn) than `Sangiovese 04'.

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii and Mohammad E. Amiri

Production of peaches (Prunus persica) in southwestern Idaho and other states in the intermountain western United States has increased during recent years, requiring information on the performance of modern cultivars in the region. Thus, a long-term project was conducted to investigate bloom date, harvest date, cumulative growing degree-days, fruit quality, and yield of various yellow- and white-fleshed peaches under conditions of southwestern Idaho during 2003 to 2007. The analysis of average response over these years indicated that ‘Snow Giant’, ‘Jupiter’, ‘Yuko King’, ‘Burpeach Six’, ‘Fairtime’, ‘Coral Star’, ‘July Sun’, and ‘Zee Lady’ bloomed earlier (5–7 Apr.), while ‘Sierra Gem’, ‘Fancy Lady’, and ‘Red Star’ bloomed later (11–12 Apr.) than other cultivars. ‘Crimson Lady’, ‘May Sun’, and ‘Sierra Gem’ were the earliest cultivars, had smaller fruit, and on average were harvested on 11, 13, and 24 July and needed 94, 96, and 103 days from full bloom to harvest, respectively. ‘Opal Moncav’, ‘August Flame’, ‘August Lady’, ‘Ryan Sun’, ‘September Snow’, ‘Yukon King’, and ‘Fairtime’ were harvested during the second half of September. The periods between bloom and harvest for these cultivars on average were 160, 163, 163, 168, 171, 173, and 177 days, respectively, and these cultivars often had greater soluble solids concentrations than other cultivars. ‘PF12B’ and ‘PF15A’ were “mid-season,” but ‘PF 20–007’ and ‘PF 24–007’ were “late-season” cultivars. ‘PF12B’, ‘PF15A’, ‘PF 20–007’, ‘Star Fire’, ‘Burapeach Six’, ‘Coral Star’, ‘All Star’, and ‘Zee Lady’ had higher yield than many of the other cultivars. While the “early-season” cultivars can be planted for regional and local market, the “mid-season” and “late-season” peaches are excellent choices for marketing during September and early October when production of the similar cultivars are already completed in warmer regions. Overall, ‘Sweet Dream’, ‘August Lady’, ‘Zee Lady’, ‘August Flame’, ‘Snow Giant’, ‘Saturn’, ‘Jupiter’, and ‘PF24–007’ showed satisfactory to great performance in this long-term evaluation.