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Lyn A. Gettys, Kyle L. Thayer, and Joseph W. Sigmon

herbicides. Products used for natural weed control include acids [i.e., acetic acid (vinegar) and citric acid], oils [clove (eugenol) ( Syzygium aromaticum ), pine ( Pinus sp.), peppermint ( Mentha × piperita ), and citronella ( Cymbopogon sp.)], soaps

Open access

Lyn A. Gettys, Kyle L. Thayer, and Joseph W. Sigmon

gardens and organic farming. Gettys et al. (2021 ) reviewed the literature regarding the use of these types of products for terrestrial weed control and evaluated the effects and selectivity of acetic acid, d-limonene, and combinations of the two on

Free access

Paul Randall, Peter Sholberg, Gary Judd, and Joan Cossentine

axial fan (Model CFA11512038HS) was positioned in front of the evaporator to direct airflow over the device and circulate the air–acid mixture. Fumigation procedures Determining an effective acetic acid vapor dose to kill diapausing codling moth larvae

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Rebecca M. Koepke-Hill, Gregory R. Armel, William E. Klingeman, Mark A. Halcomb, Jose J. Vargas, and Phillip C. Flanagan

perennial plants like mugwort. Herbicides that inhibit amino acid formation in plants and those which mimic indole-3-acetic acid are usually systemic in nature, and therefore, multiple herbicides in these classes of chemistry often have some activity on

Open access

Jacob C. Domenghini

(1.6% a.i.), vinegar [5% acetic acid (AA)], 20% horticulture grade vinegar (20% AA), and 30% horticulture grade vinegar (30% AA)}; and 2) treatment application timing [fall and spring (fall/spring) and spring only]. A summary of the weed control

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Ningguang Dong, Qingmin Wang, Junpei Zhang, and Dong Pei

The relationship between auxin and adventitious root formation has been studied for many years. Indole-3-acetic acid plays a central role in adventitious rooting and was the first plant hormone used to stimulate the rooting of cuttings ( Cooper

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Ying Gao, Hao Liu, Ningguang Dong, and Dong Pei

immediately fixed in freshly prepared 5% formaldehyde, 5% acetic acid, 70% ethanol for at least 24 h, dehydrated through a series of ethanol steps (70%, 85%, 95%, 100%), cleared in dimethylbenzene, and embedded in paraffin. Vertical sections of 8 μm thickness

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Shuguang Wang, Yongpeng Ma, Chengbin Wan, Chungyun Hse, Todd F. Shupe, Yujun Wang, and Changming Wang

D ). Fig. 1. Localization of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at the top of Fargesia yunnanensis shoots. ( A ) Immunohistochemical localization at the shoot tip, showing the strong IAA signal in the apical meristem (black arrow), sheath primordia (white

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P.L. Sholberg and A.P. Gaunce

Acetic acid (AA) as a vapor at low concentrations was effective in preventing fruit decay by postharvest fungi. Fumigation with 2.7 or 5.4 mg AA/liter in air at 2 and 20C reduced germination of Botrytis cinerea Pers. and Penicillium expansum Link conidia to zero after they had been dried on 0.5-cm square pieces of dialysis tubing. Decay of `Golden Delicious', `Red Delicious', and `Spartan' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) inoculated with 20 μl drops of conidia of B. cinerea (1.0 × 105 conidia/ml) or P. expansum (1.0 × 106 conidia/ml) was prevented by fumigating with 2.0 and 2.7 mg AA/liter, respectively. Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), and kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et R. Ferguson var. deliciosa] inoculated with B. cinerea or navel oranges (Citrus sinensis L.) inoculated with P. italicum Wehmer did not decay when fumigated with 2.0 mg AA/liter at 5C. AA fumigation at low temperatures (1 and 5C) with 2.0 or 4.0 mg AA/liter prevented decay of `Spartan' and `Red Delicious' apples and `Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis L.) inoculated with B. cinerea and P. expansum, respectively. `Spartan' apples immersed in a suspension of P. expansum conidia (1.4 × 105 conidia/ml) and fumigated with 2.7 mg AA/liter at 5C had an average of 0.7 lesions per fruit compared to 6.1 for nontreated fruit. Increasing the relative humidity from 17% to 98% increased the effectiveness of AA fumigation at 5 and 20C. At the concentrations used in our trials, AA had no apparent phytotoxic effects on the fruit. The potential for commercial fumigation with AA to control postharvest decay of fruit and vegetables appears promising.

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Bruno Razeto, Gabino Reginato, and Sergio Rojas

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) belongs to the subfamily Pomoideae, and is an evergreen fruit tree which blooms in fall. Its inflorescence is a panicle. To attain commercial fruit size fruit thinning is done by hand. A chemical thinning trial was performed during the 1999-2000 growing season in Peumo, Cachapoal County, Sixth Region, Chile. Sixteen-year-old `Golden Nugget' loquat trees were treated with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at rates of 70, 140, and 280 g·ha-1 (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 oz/acre), split into two or three applications beginning at early fruit set followed with sprays, 13 and/or 28 days later. Each treatment was applied to four randomly selected trees. At harvest, fruit number was measured in four panicles per tree and in the whole tree. NAA produced a thinning effect closely related to dose, with the highest doses inducing both highest flower thinning and the largest size of the fruit, but the lowest yield per tree. Lower doses produced fruit size and yield similar to those of hand-thinned check trees. Fruit load, expressed as trunk cross sectional area (TCSA), reached 1.8 to 9.1 fruit/cm2 TCSA (11.6 to 58.7 fruit/inch2 TCSA) in treated trees in comparison to 20 fruit/cm2 TCSA (121 fruit/inch2 TCSA) of the nontreated trees. NAA treatments did not affect the number of seeds per fruit. Total dose of 140 g·ha-1 NAA was the most effective in reducing fruit number, whether split into two or three applications. Fruit development seemed to conform to a double sigmoid curve, with a high rate of growth during fall, a lower one through the winter, in order to recover the growth rate in spring until maturity.