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Raymond A. Cloyd and Clifford S. Sadof

Greenhouse studies were conducted from 1996 to 1998 to determine the efficacy of spinosad, and acephate, against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) on transvaal daisy (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex. Hook f). In addition, the number of natural enemies inside and outside the greenhouse was determined. Studies were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with four blocks and four treatments per block. Three rates of spinosad, 50, 100, and 200 mg·L-1 (ppm), and one rate of acephate, 600 mg·L-1 were used in all three studies. Plants were artificially inoculated at bloom with 10 adult western flower thrips. The number of live and dead thrips was counted from each plant. In all three studies, both spinosad and acephate controlled thrips. However, there was more variation in the average number of live thrips for acephate than spinosad across years. In all treatments fewer live thrips and more natural enemies were found on plants outside the greenhouse than inside the greenhouse. This suggests that placing plants outdoors allows the natural enemies of thrips to colonize plants and provide supplemental control.

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Basdeo Bhagwat and W. David Lane

The insecticides acephate, dichlorvos, and imidacloprid were assayed, using in vitro shoot cultures of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.), to determine their phytotoxicity at several concentrations and their effectiveness for eradication of the Western Flower Thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis, Pergande) from infested apple shoot cultures. Commercial formulations of acephate (Orthene), dichlorvos (VaportapeII), and imidacloprid (Admire) and a technical grade of imidacloprid were used in the experiments. For acephate and imidacloprid, concentrations of 1 to 80 mg·L-1 a.i. in shoot culture medium were used, while for dichlorvos, a fumigant, particles of the formulated product containing concentrations of 0.7 to 6.4 mg a.i. were suspended in the head space of the 500-mL glass culture jar. Acephate, dichlorvos, and the technical grade of imidacloprid did not cause phytotoxicity and growth of shoot cultures was unaffected at all treatment concentrations tested after a 6-week treatment period. Imidacloprid (20 to 80 mg·L-1 of the commercial formulation) caused chlorosis at the end of the 6-week treatment period. None of the treatments tested resulted in the death of shoots. Thrips were eradicated by acephate or imidacloprid treatments of 5 mg·L-1 and by dichlorvos treatment of 0.7 mg per 500-mL culture jar. Shoot cultures grew normally after the treatment period. Chemical names used: O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate (acephate), 2,2- dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate(dichlorvos),1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-nitroimidazolidin-2-ylideneamine (imidacloprid).

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James D. Spiers, Fred T. Davies Jr., Chuanjiu He, Carlos E. Bográn, Kevin M. Heinz, Terri W. Starman, and Amanda Chau

This study evaluated the influence of insecticides on gas exchange, chlorophyll content, vegetative and floral development, and plant quality of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus `Festival Salmon'). Insecticides from five chemical classes were applied weekly at 1× or 4× their respective recommended concentration. The insecticides used were abamectin (Avid), acephate (Orthene), bifenthrin (Talstar), clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil (Triact), and spinosad (Conserve). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were reduced in plants treated with neem oil. Plants treated with neem oil flowered later—and at 4× the recommended label concentration had reduced growth, based on lower vegetative dry mass (DM) and total aboveground DM, reduced leaf area, thicker leaves (lower specific leaf area), higher chlorophyll content (basal leaves), and reduced flower production. Plants treated with acephate at 4× the recommended label concentration were of the lowest quality due to extensive phytotoxicity (leaf chlorosis). Plants treated with 1× or 4× abamectin or spinosad were of the highest quality due to no phytotoxicity and no thrips damage (thrips naturally migrated into the greenhouse). The control plants and plants treated with 1× bifenthrin had reduced quality because of thrips feeding damage; however gas exchange was not negatively affected.

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Raymond A. Cloyd

spinosad (Conserve®; Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN); abamectin and azadirachtin [Azatin® (OHP, Mainland, PA) and Ornazin® (SePro, Carmel, IN)]; and acephate (Orthene®; Valent U.S.A., Walnut Creek, CA) and fenpropathrin (Tame®; Valent U.S.A.). The two

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James D. Spiers*, Fred T. Davies, Chuanjiu He, Amanda Chau, Kevin M. Heinz, and Terri W. Starman

This research focused on the influence of insecticides on plant growth, gas exchange, rate of flowering, and chlorophyll content of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev cv. Charm) grown according to recommended procedures for pot plant production. Five insecticides were applied at recommended concentrations at three different frequencies: weekly (7 days), bi-weekly (14 days), or monthly (28 days). A separate treatment was applied weekly at 4× the recommended concentration. Insecticides used were: acephate (Orthene®) Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray 97), bifenthrin (Talstar®) Flowable), endosulfan (Thiodan®) 50 WP), imidacloprid (Marathon®) II), and spinosad (Conserve®) SC). Phytotoxicity occurred in the form of leaf burn on all acephate treatments, with the greatest damage occurring at the 4× concentration. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were influenced primarily by the degree of aphid and/or spider mite infestation—except for acephate and endosulfan treatments (weekly and 4×), which had reduced photosynthesis with minimal insect infestations. Plants receiving imadacloprid monthly had the greatest leaf dry mass (DM). Plants treated with acephate had lower leaf and stem DM with bi-weekly and 4× treatments. Spinosad treatments at recommended concentrations had reduced stem DM, in part due to aphid infestations. The flower DM was not significantly different among treatments. There were treatment differences in chlorophyll content as measured with a SPAD-502 portable chlorophyll meter.

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Raymond A. Cloyd and Clifford S. Sadof

Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of two granular systemic insecticides, acephate (Pinpoint 15G) and imidacloprid (Marathon 1G), against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) on Transvaal daisy (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex. Hook. f). These studies were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with four blocks and four treatments per block. Two rates of acephate (0.75 g/16.5-cm pot and 1.0 g/16.5-cm pot) and one rate of imidacloprid (1.3 g/16.5-cm pot) were used in two studies. Plants were artificially inoculated with five adult western flower thrips at the prebloom stage. Plants were evaluated each week for flower quality (1 = complete injury or flower distortion to 5 = no injury), thrips density per flower, and number of plants flowering in each plot. Both studies showed that the acephate treated plants had the best flower quality, lowest numbers of thrips, and greatest number of plants flowering compared to imidacloprid and the check. These studies demonstrate that granulated acephate exhibits some activity in flower tissue and may assist growers in managing western flower thrips in floricultural crops.

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R.W. McMahon, R.K. Lindquist, M.L. Casey, A.C. Witt, and S.H. Kinnamon

A demonstration study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of biological and chemical control treatments on the greenhouse whitefly (GHWF) (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Westwood) using poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild.) stock plants. Two identical greenhouse compartments, each containing 84 stock plants, were used. In the biological control compartment, three biweekly releases of Encarsia formosa (EF) were made, while in the chemical control compartment eight weekly applications of resmethrin or acephate aerosol treatments were made. Results showed that overall greenhouse whitefly populations in the chemical control compartment were slightly lower than in the biological control compartment. Cuttings taken from stock plants in the biological control compartment at the end of the experiment were commercially acceptable with regard to the presence of GHWF adults. Chemical names used: O,S-dimethyl acetylphosphoramidothioate (acephate), [5-(phenylmethyl)-3-furanyl] methyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl)cyclopropane-carboxylate (resmethrin).

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Robin Rosetta, Sven E. Svenson, and Neil Bell

In July 1999, adult stages of root weevils were established in 1-gal containers planted with Rhododendron `PJM.' Each pot was inoculated with one black vine weevil, three rough strawberry root weevils, and four strawberry root weevils. On 12 July, insecticide spray treatments were applied. Treatments were evaluated for percent adult mortality at 7 and 14 days after treatment (DAT). Black vine weevils were more sensitive to the insecticides studied than either strawberry root weevil or rough strawberry root weevil. There was considerable mortality of the black vine weevils and rough strawberry root weevils in the untreated plots by 14 DAT. Talstar Flowable (bifenthrin), Alta (deltamethrin), Topside (lamda cyhalothrin), and CGA 293 343 (thiamethoxam) all gave 100% control 7 DAT. Additionally, Closure (bendiocarb) and acephate gave 75% or better control at 7 DAT. Rough strawberry root weevil had 100% mortality in only the Alta-treated plots at 7 DAT, followed by 93% and 80% mortality in Topside and acephate-treated plots, respectively. Mortality of the strawberry root weevils in the untreated plots by 14 DAT remained relatively low. Strawberry root weevils were more resistant to the applied insecticide treatments. Only Topside-treated plots had 90% or greater mortality at 7 DAT, followed by Talstar (60%), Alta (58%), and acephate (54%). Topside-treated plots had 90% or greater mortality at 14 DAT followed by Talstar (76%), Alta (68%), and Closure (60%). Combined root weevil species mortality showed highest mortality at 7 DAT in Topside-treated plots (87% or greater), followed by Alta (74% or greater), and acephate (73%).

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James D. Spiers, Fred T. Davies, Chuanjiu He, Carlos Bogran, Amanda Chau, Kevin M. Heinz, and Terri W. Starman

This research focused on the influence of insecticides on gas exchange, chlorophyll content, vegetative and floral development, and overall plant quality of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii var. `Festival Salmon'). Insecticides from five chemical classes were applied weekly at 1× and 4× the recommended concentrations. Insecticides used were: abamectin (Avid® 0.15 EC), acephate (Orthene® Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray 97), bifenthrin (Talstar® Nursery Flowable), clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil (Triact® 70), and spinosad (Conserve® SC). Phytotoxicity occurred in the form of leaf chlorosis on all acephate treatments, with the greatest damage occurring at the 4× concentration. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were significantly reduced in plants treated with neem oil extract. Plants treated with the neem oil extract (1× and 4×) flowered later and had reduced growth [lower shoot dry mass (DM) and total DM]. Plants that received 4× the recommended concentration of neem oil extract had reduced leaf area, thicker leaves (lower specific leaf area), higher leaf chlorophyll content, and reduced flower production, as determined by flower number and flower DM. Plants treated with acephate 4× concentration were the lowest quality plants due to extensive phytotoxicity (leaf burn), which also reduced photosynthesis. The highest quality plants were treated with spinosad and abamectin due to zero phytotoxicity and/or no thrips damage (thrips naturally migrated into the greenhouse). The control plants and plants treated with bifenthrin 1× were not marketable due to thrips damage; however, plant growth characteristics and gas exchange were not statistically different.

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William G. Hudson, Melvin P. Garber, Ronald D. Oetting, Russell F. Mizell, Ann R. Chase, and Kane Bondari

A national survey of the greenhouse and nursery industry provided data on insecticide/miticide use in 1993. Respondents reported using 46 different compounds, and the industry used an estimated 2.8 million pounds of active ingredients to control insect and mite pests. The most frequently used material was acephate: 52% of the respondents reporting use in 1993. The most heavily used material was a miticide, dienochlor, with an estimated 643,281 lb (292,400 kg) applied, or 28% of the total. Only three other compounds represented more than 5% of the total use—carbaryl (498,073 lb or 22%) (226,397 kg), diazinon (326,131 lb or 14%) (148,242 kg), and propargite (143,888 lb or 6%) (65,404 kg). Of the top four products, two (dienochlor and propargite) are miticides. Together these represented 34% of the total estimated insecticide/miticide use, demonstrating the importance of mites as pests in the industry.