-old acclimatized plants in the greenhouse; ( I ) acclimatized plants growing on the experimental field after 1 year. It is well known that plants grown in vitro have reduced photosynthetic activity as a result of low light intensity, limited gas exchange, and high
Marija Perić, Slavica Dmitrović, Suzana Živković, Biljana Filipović, Marijana Skorić, Ana Simonović, and Slađana Todorović
R.M. Skirvin and S. Sriskandarajah
Acclimatization and growth of in vitro-derived apple shoots of two apple scion apple cultivars were compared under fogged conditions in a greenhouse and in a commercial growth cabinet (Phototron). Plant survival rates of microcuttings of `Royal Gala' and `Jonagold' were significantly better when maintained in the Phototron units than when grown in a greenhouse under fog. The number and length of roots on microcuttings was significantly higher in the Phototron than under fog. In the present study, we demonstrated that the Phototron environment was better than a fogged greenhouse for establishing apple shoots ex vitro. However, the Phototron units are so small that they hold no more than 100 to 120 plants at a time. Therefore, the units will be of most value to growers or individuals in laboratories who do not have a constant need for acclimatization facilities. Growers who acclimatize many plants should continue to use fogging or misting facilities.
Mehmet Nuri Nas and Paul E. Read
Microshoots of four hazelnut genotypes grown in vitro on Nas and Read medium (NRM) containing various combinations of CuSO4 • 5H2O and myo-inositol were successfully rooted and acclimatized ex vitro without any need of in vitro hardening treatments. Dipping of shoot bases in 1000 ppm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) solution for 5 or 10 seconds followed by placement of shoots in plant growth regulator free NRM gave rise to formation of roots as early as 8 days. Shoots treated for 5 and 10 seconds rooted similarly, and depending on genotype, 88% to 98% rooting was observed within 15 days after treatment with IBA. Ex vitro survival of shoots three months after in vitro-root induction was 73% when shoots were treated with IBA for 5 seconds and 66% when shoots were treated for 10 seconds. The highest ex vitro survival rate (97%) 3 months after root induction was observed when shoots were treated with IBA solution for 10 seconds, and then cultured directly in peat pellets. Shoots developed good roots, and grew up to 70 cm in height 3 months after root induction. The potential use of rooting and acclimatization protocol for commercial micropropagation of hazelnut is presented.
Trinidad Reyes, Terril A. Nell, James E. Barrett, and Charles A. Conover
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the interior performance of Chrysalidocarpus lutescens grown for 8 months under 481, 820, and 1241 μmol·m–2·s–1 and fertilized weekly with a 20N–4.7P–16.6K soluble fertilizer at 440, 880, and 1660 mg/pot. Afterwards, plants were placed indoors and maintained at 20 μmol·m–2·s–1 for 12 h daily at 21±1C and a relative humidity of 50%±5% for 3 months. At the end of the production phase, light compensation point (LCP) varied from 243 μmol·m–2·s–1 at the high irradiance level to 140 μmol·m–2·s–1 at the lowest one. Chlorophyll concentration in the leaves was not affected by irradiance or fertilizer rate. Starch concentration in stems and roots were higher the lower the fertilizer rate applied during production and the higher the irradiance level. After 3 months indoors, LCP declined for all the treatments, but the lowest LCP reached, 126 μmol·m–2·s–1, was still too high if the plant has to survive an interior environment. After the interior holding period, a 45% to 55% reduction was observed on leaf, stem, and root soluble sugar concentrations, and stem and root starch concentrations decreased by 97%, and 62% to 72%, respectively, compared to the concentration at the end of production. The number of fronds increased in all treatments during the postproduction evaluation. However, the drastic carbohydrate concentration depletion during the interior holding period indicates that C. lutescens is not a species for extended use under very low interior light conditions.
M.E. El-Mahrouk, A.R. El-Shereif, Y.H. Dewir, Y.M. Hafez, Kh. A. Abdelaal, S. El-Hendawy, H. Migdadi, and R.S. Al-Obeed
plant tissue culture that hinders growth, multiplication, and acclimatization of regenerated plantlets ( Debergh et al., 1992 ; Pospisilova et al., 2007 ). Losses of up to 60% in cultured shoots or explants have been reported due to hyperhydricity in
Doina Clapa, Alexandru Fira, and Nirmal Joshee
Ex vitro acclimatization is an important stage during in vitro plant propagation, because it deals with gradual transition from the artificial culture conditions to the natural living environment. In the acclimatization stage it is necessary to
Carmen Valero Aracama, Michael E. Kane, Sandra B. Wilson, and Nancy L. Philman
acclimatization capacity were observed among genotypes when plants were transferred to ex vitro conditions. Similarly, many other horticultural plants species are readily micropropagated in vitro but exhibit poor acclimatization and subsequent survival ex vitro
Kaori Itagaki, Toshio Shibuya, Motoaki Tojo, Ryosuke Endo, and Yoshiaki Kitaya
fungus P. xanthii , on leaves of cucumber ( C. sativus L.) acclimatized to [CO 2 ] levels both lower and higher than atmospheric, and investigated the relationships between susceptibility and leaf properties. The goal was to evaluate plant
Timothy K. Broschat, Henry Donselman, and Dennis B. McConnell
Sun-grown (2100 μmol·s-1·m-2) Ptychosperma elegans palms were acclimatized for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12 months under shade (570 μmol·s-1·m-2). Plant height was greater in palms grown under shade for 6 months or longer and plant color gradually improved when palms were grown under shade for 2 months or longer. Leaves produced under shade had an undifferentiated mesophyll comprised of isodiametric and rectangular cells. Full sun leaves had a mesophyll with distinct palisade cells and abaxial mesophyll cells comprised of rectangular and isodiametric cells. The mesophyll in both light levels had small intercellular spaces. Sun leaves were replaced under shade at a rate of about one leaf every 3 months. After 10 weeks in an interior environment, the number of green leaves remaining on the palms was directly proportional to the number of shade leaves on the plant before placement in the interior environment and to the length of time the palms had been grown under shade.
Andrew Mullin, Bárbara Nogueira Souza Costa, Jason Downing, and Amir Ali Khoddamzadeh
Epidendrum nocturnum . However, a fast protocol has yet to be developed for the species used in this project. Because of the high seedling mortality during the introduction and reintroduction stages, acclimatization, which is the process of transferring