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R.J. Hilton, H. Riedl and P.H. Westigard

Handgun treatments of abamectin and oil applied between mid-June and late August caused distinct epidermal rings where drops of spray liquid dried on the surface of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.). The severity of epidermal injury was related to the concentration of oil in the abamectin spray mixture (abamectin applied without oil caused no fruit damage). Of six pear cultivars tested, `Anjou' was most susceptible to injury, followed by `Cornice' and `Bartlett'. `Sensation Red Bartlett', `Bosc', and `Seckel' showed little or no phytotoxicity symptoms from abamectin and oil treatments with oil concentrations from 0.125% to 2.0% (v/v). On sensitive cultivars, the concentration of oil should not exceed 0.25% (v/v) when combined with abamectin to reduce the risk of epidermal injury. Oil at 0.25% provides for adequate leaf penetration of abamectin and results in commercially acceptable spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control. Chemical names used: avermectin B1 (abamectin).

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James D. Spiers, Fred T. Davies Jr., Chuanjiu He, Carlos E. Bográn, Kevin M. Heinz, Terri W. Starman and Amanda Chau

This study evaluated the influence of insecticides on gas exchange, chlorophyll content, vegetative and floral development, and plant quality of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus `Festival Salmon'). Insecticides from five chemical classes were applied weekly at 1× or 4× their respective recommended concentration. The insecticides used were abamectin (Avid), acephate (Orthene), bifenthrin (Talstar), clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil (Triact), and spinosad (Conserve). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were reduced in plants treated with neem oil. Plants treated with neem oil flowered later—and at 4× the recommended label concentration had reduced growth, based on lower vegetative dry mass (DM) and total aboveground DM, reduced leaf area, thicker leaves (lower specific leaf area), higher chlorophyll content (basal leaves), and reduced flower production. Plants treated with acephate at 4× the recommended label concentration were of the lowest quality due to extensive phytotoxicity (leaf chlorosis). Plants treated with 1× or 4× abamectin or spinosad were of the highest quality due to no phytotoxicity and no thrips damage (thrips naturally migrated into the greenhouse). The control plants and plants treated with 1× bifenthrin had reduced quality because of thrips feeding damage; however gas exchange was not negatively affected.

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Raymond A. Cloyd

abamectin (Avid®; Syngenta Professional Products, Greensboro, NC) and bifenthrin (Talstar®; FMC, Philadelphia, PA) for control of mite, whitefly, mealybug, and aphid. The two-way tank mixtures cited six times by the survey respondents included abamectin and

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José Wagner S. Melo, Cleiton A. Domingos, Angelo Pallini, José Eudes M. Oliveira and Manoel G.C. Gondim Jr.

bunches were sprayed with the acaricide, Vertimec 18CE (abamectin, 9 g·ha −1 , dose recommended by the manufacturer) once a month until the end of the evaluations. In Treatment 4 (control plants), no treatment was applied. The wind direction determined the

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Raymond A. Cloyd, Cindy L. Galle, Stephen R. Keith and Kenneth E. Kemp

et al., 1994 ). Miticides registered for use in greenhouses that have translaminar activity include abamectin (Avid; Syngenta Professional Products, Greensboro, NC), chlorfenapyr (Pylon; OHP, Inc., Mainland, PA), spiromesifen (Judo; OHP, Inc.), and

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Raymond A. Cloyd and Amy L. Raudenbush

, with the insecticide/miticide, abamectin, enhances efficacy resulting in 95% mortality of twospotted spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae ) eggs, larvae, and adults ( Wang and Taashiu, 1994 ). There is minimal quantitative data associated with the effect

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Jawwad A. Qureshi, Barry C. Kostyk and Philip A. Stansly

effectiveness of thiamethoxam (MoA 4A) against D. citri and P. citrella was not improved, and was even reduced, by premixing with cyantraniliprole (MoA 28) in A16971 or tank mixing with pymetrozine (Fulfill 50 WDG, MoA 9B) or abamectin (Agri-Mek SC, MoA 6

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Rufus Isaacs, Vicki Morrone and Dariusz Gajek

The goal of this study was to evaluate potential alternatives to endosulfan for control of the blueberry bud mite (Acalitus vaccinii), because the availability of this acaricide may be restricted in the future. Laboratory evaluations of potential acaricides showed that endosulfan and a combination of abamectin plus oil provided 97% and 100% control, respectively. Pyridaben and fenpropathrin were less effective, reducing mite survival by 49% and 57%, respectively. Further laboratory evaluation of the abamectin plus oil treatment showed that each component applied alone provided a high level of control of blueberry bud mite. Field trials in Michigan on a mature highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) planting were conducted to compare control of this pest by postharvest applications of endosulfan, delayed-dormant application of oil, or a combination of both treatments. The oil provided a 40% reduction in mite scores, while endosulfan was more effective (48%) and similar to the combination of endosulfan and oil (52%). A separate field trial using a multifan/nozzle sprayer that applied the pesticide in 233.8 L·ha-1 (25 gal/acre) of water suggested that the level of control from one application of endosulfan was not as effective as two applications. Results are discussed in relation to developing future bud mite control programs in blueberry and the need to address gaps in our understanding of the biology of blueberry bud mite. Endosulfan (Thiodan 50 WP), Endosulfan (Thiodan 3 EC), Abamectin (AgriMek 0.15 EC), Fenpropathrin (Danitol 2.4 EC), Pyridaben (Pyramite 60 WP).

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James D. Spiers, Fred T. Davies, Chuanjiu He, Carlos Bogran, Amanda Chau, Kevin M. Heinz and Terri W. Starman

This research focused on the influence of insecticides on gas exchange, chlorophyll content, vegetative and floral development, and overall plant quality of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii var. `Festival Salmon'). Insecticides from five chemical classes were applied weekly at 1× and 4× the recommended concentrations. Insecticides used were: abamectin (Avid® 0.15 EC), acephate (Orthene® Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray 97), bifenthrin (Talstar® Nursery Flowable), clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil (Triact® 70), and spinosad (Conserve® SC). Phytotoxicity occurred in the form of leaf chlorosis on all acephate treatments, with the greatest damage occurring at the 4× concentration. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were significantly reduced in plants treated with neem oil extract. Plants treated with the neem oil extract (1× and 4×) flowered later and had reduced growth [lower shoot dry mass (DM) and total DM]. Plants that received 4× the recommended concentration of neem oil extract had reduced leaf area, thicker leaves (lower specific leaf area), higher leaf chlorophyll content, and reduced flower production, as determined by flower number and flower DM. Plants treated with acephate 4× concentration were the lowest quality plants due to extensive phytotoxicity (leaf burn), which also reduced photosynthesis. The highest quality plants were treated with spinosad and abamectin due to zero phytotoxicity and/or no thrips damage (thrips naturally migrated into the greenhouse). The control plants and plants treated with bifenthrin 1× were not marketable due to thrips damage; however, plant growth characteristics and gas exchange were not statistically different.

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Julie A. McIntyre, Douglas A. Hopper and W.S. Cranshaw

Chemical and physical methods were tested to determine their effectiveness in controlling Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in greenhouses. Comparisons were made between abamectin (Avid); Spinosyn A and D, formulated from the soil Actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa (Spinosad); azadirachtin (Margosan-O); and diatomaceous earth, a physical control aimed at deterring pupation. Results based on the number of thrips counted in gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) flowers indicate that the chemical treatments were significantly more effective in reducing populations than the diatomaceous earth. Over time, the population of thrips in both the Avid and Spinosad treatments was reduced to zero. Diatomaceous earth treatments reduced populations almost 50% as compared to the control, while reductions from Margosan-O ranged 50-90%.