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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios and Efthimia Nydrioti

sustainability and growth were improved when irrigation was applied and that irrigation could counteract the difficulties imposed by the reduced substrate depth. The first objective of this research was to compare the growth of Manilagrass [ Zoysia matrella (L

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Jason D. Hinton, David P. Livingston III, Grady L. Miller, Charles H. Peacock and Tan Tuong

Japanese Lawn Grass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) and Manilagrass [ Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.] are high-quality warm-season turfgrasses used on golf courses, athletic fields, and lawns ( Beard, 1973 ). This is partially the result of their better

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Kyle Briscoe, Grady Miller, Scott Brinton, Dan Bowman and Charles Peacock

’ [ Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.], a fine textured zoysiagrass, has been evaluated for shaded putting greens. ‘Diamond’ has superior shade tolerance compared with bermudagrass ( Engelke et al., 2002 ). However, zoysiagrass has been shown to establish more

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Takanori Kuronuma and Hitoshi Watanabe

this study. Although these species are widely distributed in Japan, the photosynthetic pathway of the two Sedum species is not well understood. Zoysia matrella , a warm-season turfgrass and C 4 plant, is one of the most common green roof plants in

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Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang and Bingru Huang

Heat stress may limit the growth of turfgrasses through the induction of oxidative stress, causing cellular and physiological damage. The objective of the study was to examine the association of heat and oxidative stresses between warm-season (C4) and cool-season (C3) turfgrasses. Plants of zoysiagrass (Zoysia matrella L. Merr. cv. Manila) (C4) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreber cv. Barlexus) (C3) were exposed to optimal temperature conditions (24 °C for tall fescue and 34 °C for zoysiagrass) or heat stress (10 °C above the respective optimal temperature for each species) in growth chambers. Zoysiagrass exhibited less severe decline in turf quality and photochemical efficiency and less severe oxidative damage in cellular membranes as demonstrated by lower membrane electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation compared with tall fescue when both were exposed to heat stress. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) declined with heat stress for both species, but to a lesser extent in zoysiagrass than in tall fescue, whereas catalase activity did not change significantly under heat stress and did not exhibit species variation. Our results demonstrate that the superior heat tolerance in zoysiagrass in comparison with tall fescue was associated with greater oxidative scavenging capacity as a result of the maintenance of higher SOD and POD activities.

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Filippo Rimi, Stefano Macolino and Bernd Leinauer

In transitional environments, turf managers and sod producers of warm-season grasses face the issue of winter annual weeds that can dominate dormant turf stands through the winter until late spring. The use of glyphosate to control weeds in dormant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) has been well documented, but information is lacking about its effect on spring green-up of other warm-season grasses. A field study was conducted on two commercial sod farms in northern Italy (Expt. 1) to evaluate the effects of glyphosate applied on two different winter dates on weed control and spring green-up of ‘Zeon’ manilagrass (Zoysia matrella). A second study was carried out at the experimental agricultural farm of Padova University (Expt. 2) to assess the effects of a winter application of glyphosate on weed control and spring green-up of ‘Yukon’ bermudagrass and ‘Companion’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica). Each experiment was conducted from Jan. to June 2011, and glyphosate was applied at 1.1 kg·ha−1 on 8 and 21 Feb. in Expt. 1 and on 8 Feb. in Expt. 2. Spring recovery was evaluated by periodical visual ratings of green turf cover and by collecting normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs). Weed injury was visually evaluated on all plots 7 weeks after the 8 Feb. glyphosate application. The visual ratings of green cover were strongly and positively correlated with NDVI measurements. Glyphosate applied in February as a single treatment effectively controlled winter weeds in ‘Zeon’ manilagrass (Expt. 1) and ‘Yukon’ bermudagrass (Expt. 2) without negatively affecting spring green-up. In contrast, spring green-up of ‘Companion’ zoysiagrass (Expt. 2) was delayed by the application of glyphosate.

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Bradley S. Sladek, Gerald M. Henry and Dick L. Auld

Calif. Turfgrass Cult. 45 7 10 Henry, J.M. Tjosvold, S. Gibeault, V.A. 1988 Zoysiagrass establishment Calif. Turfgrass Cult. 38 1 4 Hume, E.P. Freyre, R.H. 1950 Propagation trials with Manila grass, Zoysia matrella in Puerto Rico. Proc Amer. Soc. Hort

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Michel Pirchio, Marco Fontanelli, Christian Frasconi, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Andrea Peruzzi, Lisa Caturegli, Monica Gaetani, Simone Magni, Marco Volterrani and Nicola Grossi

High-quality sports turfs often require low mowing and frequent maintenance. Sports turfs often consist of hard-to-mow warm season turfgrasses, such as zoysiagrass (Zoysia sp.) or bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.). Although autonomous mowers have several advantages over manually operated mowers, they are not designed to mow lower than 2.0 cm and are consequently not used on high-quality sports turfs. All autonomous mowers are only equipped with rotary mowing devices and do not perform clipping removal. An ordinary autonomous mower was modified to obtain a prototype autonomous mower cutting at a low height. The prototype autonomous mower was tested on a manila grass (Zoysia matrella) turf and compared its performance in terms of turf quality and energy consumption with an ordinary autonomous mower and with a gasoline reel mower. A three-way factor experimental design with three replications was adopted. Factor A consisted of four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg·ha−1), factor B consisted of two mowing systems (autonomous mower vs. walk-behind gasoline reel mower with no clipping removal), and factor C consisted of two mowing heights (1.2 and 3.6 cm). Prototype autonomous mower performed mowing at 1.2-cm mowing height whereas ordinary autonomous mower mowed at 3.6-cm mowing height. The interaction between the mowing system and mowing height showed that the turf quality was higher when the turf was mowed by the autonomous mower and at 1.2 cm than at 3.6 cm. Autonomous mowing not only reduced the mowing quality, but also reduced the leaf width. Lower mowing height induced thinner leaves. Nitrogen fertilization not only increased the overall turf quality, reduced weed cover percentage, but also reduced mowing quality. Autonomous mowers also had a lower energy consumption if compared with the reel mower (1.86 vs. 5.37 kWh/week at 1.2-cm mowing height and 1.79 vs. 2.32 kWh/week at 3.6-cm mowing height, respectively). These results show that autonomous mowers can perform low mowing even on tough-to-mow turfgrass species. They could also be used on high-quality sports turfs, thus saving time as well as reducing noise and pollution.

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Bradley S. Sladek, Gerald M. Henry and Dick L. Auld

Establishing turfgrass in shaded environments can create a unique maintenance challenge. Shading reduces zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) photosynthesis and results in reduced turfgrass aesthetic quality. Zoysiagrass is a warm-season, perennial turfgrass that forms a dense, uniform turf through the production of rhizomes and stolons. It has demonstrated good tolerance to growth in reduced light intensity environments. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the relative difference in growth response to three light intensities (0%, 50%, and 90% shade) among six zoysiagrass genotypes under artificial shade conditions. Percent change in zoysiagrass plug diameter decreased as shade level increased 6 and 12 weeks after planting (WAP) regardless of year or genotype. ‘Diamond’ and ‘Shadow Turf’ exhibited the greatest percent change in plug diameter 12 WAP (60% to 69%) followed by the remaining zoysiagrass genotypes (21% to 56%) when grown under 50% shade, regardless of year. In 2006, no zoysiagrass genotype maintained acceptable turfgrass quality (6 or greater) 12 WAP when grown under 50% shade. However, ‘Diamond’ and ‘Shadow Turf’ exhibited acceptable turfgrass quality ratings (7.0 and 6.3) 12 WAP in 2007, whereas all other genotypes exhibited unacceptable turfgrass quality ratings (5.0 to 5.7). In 2006, ‘Shadow Turf’ zoysiagrass exhibited the greatest percent increase in plug diameter (21%) followed by ‘DALZ 0501’ (15%) and ‘Diamond’ (5%) 12 WAP when grown under 90% shade. All other zoysiagrass genotypes exhibited decreases in plug diameter (31% to 87%). In 2007, ‘Shadow Turf’ and ‘Diamond’ exhibited the greatest percent change in plug diameter (11%) followed by ‘DALZ 0501’ (7%) 12 WAP when grown under 90% shade. All other zoysiagrass genotypes exhibited decreases in plug diameter (17% to 38%). Turfgrass quality declined as shade level increased 6 and 12 WAP regardless of year or genotype. ‘Shadow Turf’ and ‘Diamond’ exhibited the highest turfgrass quality ratings (4.7 and 3.7, respectively, in 2006 and 5.3 in 2007) 12 WAP when grown under 90% shade. Proper zoysiagrass cultivar selection may improve turfgrass growth and quality under low light intensity while increasing turfgrass options for shaded environments.

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B.G. Wherley, P. Skulkaew, A. Chandra, A.D. Genovesi and M.C. Engelke

A 3-year study was conducted to evaluate the comparative performance of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) cultivars for shaded environments in which inputs are minimized. Included in the study were commercial cultivars Diamond, Cavalier, Royal, Shadow Turf, Zorro, Zeon, Jamur, Crowne, Palisades, and Meyer. In July 2006, grass plugs were planted in a shade nursery comprised of live oak trees providing 89% shade. From 2007 to 2009, turf plots were periodically evaluated for quality, density, color, vertical canopy height, and extent of lateral spread. Overall turfgrass quality was noticeably reduced by the heavily shaded environment; however, some cultivars attained acceptable levels during midsummer periods. A turf performance index (TPI) was generated for ranking the cultivars that represented the number of times an entry occurred in the top statistical group across all parameters and rating dates. ‘Royal’, ‘Zorro’, and ‘Shadow Turf’ were the cultivars ranking in the top statistical grouping most often throughout the study. The results suggest that Z. matrellas may be better adapted than Z. japonicas for heavily shaded environments where inputs are conserved.