. Fry, J. Pan, X. Rajashekar, C. Bremer, D. Engelke, M. Wang, X. 2009 Cold acclimation of Zoysia japonica and Z. matrella and changes in rhizome abscisic acid levels Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 11 883 889 Zhang, X. Ervin, E.H. 2004 Cytokinin
Lixin Xu, Mili Zhang, Xunzhong Zhang, and Lie-Bao Han
Xi Xiong, Ken Diesburg, and Daniel T. Lloyd
Zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) is a popular turfgrass species used in golf course fairways in Missouri and surrounding states ( Lyman et al., 2007 ). Throughout this region, zoysiagrass enters dormancy typically in November and resumes
M.D. Richardson and J.W. Boyd
Establishment of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) from sprigs is often impractical for golf courses and sports fields because of the slow growth rate of the species and subsequent long establishment period. A study was conducted at two different sites in Arkansas to evaluate the effects of soil topdressing and post-plant fertility rates on establishment of zoysiagrass from vegetative sprigs. Each site was planted according to standard methods using freshly-harvested sprigs (18 m3/ha) and either top dressed with 1.0 cm of native soil or maintained without topdressing. Beginning immediately after establishment, N was applied monthly at rates of 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, or 5.0 g·m-2 as urea. Rate of cover was monitored throughout the growing season and elemental analysis of plant tissues was determined 120 days after planting. Topdressing the sprigs with native soil significantly improved establishment compared to traditional sprigging at both sites, presumably because of enhanced sprig survival. Applications of N during the establishment period had little or no overall effect on establishment, although the 0 g·m-2 rate was slightly inferior to all other rates. This study indicates that methods that enhance sprig survival are more important than added fertility for the rapid establishment of zoysiagrass sprigs.
Jason D. Hinton, David P. Livingston III, Grady L. Miller, Charles H. Peacock, and Tan Tuong
Japanese Lawn Grass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) and Manilagrass [ Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.] are high-quality warm-season turfgrasses used on golf courses, athletic fields, and lawns ( Beard, 1973 ). This is partially the result of their better
Juming Zhang, Michael Richardson, Douglas Karcher, John McCalla, Jingwen Mai, and Hanfu Luo
.D. Boyd, J.W. 2001 Establishing Zoysia japonica from sprigs: Effects of topdressing and nitrogen fertility HortScience 36 377 379 doi: 10.21273/HORTSCI.36.2.377 Richardson, M.D. Boyd, J.W. McCalla, J.H. 2003 A net-planting technique for establishing
Aaron J. Patton, Jon M. Trappe, and Michael D. Richardson
promoters on the rate of seedling establishment of japanese lawn grass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 6 269 271 McGinnies, W.J. 1960 Effects of moisture stress and temperature on germination of six range grasses Agron. J. 52 159 162
Sarah E. Cathey, Jason K. Kruse, Thomas R. Sinclair, and Michael D. Dukes
turfgrass cultivars. In this repeated study, ‘Argentine’ bahiagrass ( Paspalum notatum Flugge), ‘Floratam’ st. augustinegrass [ Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze], and ‘Empire’ zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) were examined for drought stress
Kenton W. Peterson, Jack D. Fry, and Dale J. Bremer
‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steudel) is commonly planted on home lawns and golf courses in the transition zone; however, poor shade tolerance limits its widespread use. This study was conducted to determine changes and differences in growth among selected Zoysia cultivars and progeny under a natural shade environment over a 3-year period in the transition zone. The study was initiated in June 2010 at the Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center in Manhattan, KS. Soil type was a Chase silt loam (fine, montmorillonitic, mesic, Aquic, Argiudoll). Zoysia genotypes were sodded in 0.37-m2 plots and arranged in a randomized complete block with five replications under silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) shade that resulted in a 91% reduction in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Genotypes included ‘Zorro’ [Z. matrella (L.) Merrill], ‘Emerald’ [Z. japonica × Z. pacifica (Goudswaard) Hotta & Kuroki], ‘Meyer’, Chinese Common (Z. japonica), and experimental progeny Exp1 (Z. matrella × Z. japonica), and Exp2 and Exp3 [(Z. japonica × Z. pacifica) × Z. japonica]. ‘Zorro’ and ‘Emerald’ experienced winter injury, which negatively affected their performance. Tiller numbers decreased 47% in ‘Meyer’ from June 2010 to June 2012, but declines in [(Z. japonica × Z. pacifica) × Z. japonica] progeny were only 1% for Exp2 and 27% for Exp3, and both Exp2 and Exp3 maintained high percent green cover throughout the study. In general, by the third year of evaluation, progeny of [(Z. japonica × Z. pacifica) × Z. japonica] had higher quality ratings and higher tiller numbers than ‘Meyer’ and may provide more shade-tolerant cultivar choices for transition zone turf managers.
Michael D. Richardson, John McCalla, Tina Buxton, and Filippo Lulli
Many early spring bulb species are naturally found in grassy areas such as meadows or lawns. However, few studies have been conducted to define this concept in maintained lawns, especially warm-season lawns such as zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) or bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Four early spring bulb species, including two crocus species (Crocus tommasinianus ‘Ruby Giant’ and Crocus chrysanthus ‘Goldilocks’), reticulated iris (Iris reticulata ‘Cantab’), and snowdrop (Galanthus elwesii) were established in a zoysiagrass lawn site in Fall 2010. In Spring 2011 and 2012, five common preemergence herbicides used on lawns were applied across the plots to determine phytotoxicity. In addition, mowing treatments were started on plots at two timings (15 Mar. and 15 Apr.) to determine how mowing might affect survival and performance of the bulb species. Early performance was good for all bulb species and greater than 50% flower production was observed in the first spring (2011) after planting. However, in the subsequent 3 years (2012–14), the only species that persisted and continued to flower adequately each spring was ‘Ruby Giant’ crocus. Herbicides and mowing did not affect bulb survival or performance in the trial, suggesting that typical lawn management practices will not be deleterious to the bulbs. These results demonstrate that early spring bulbs may be incorporated into dormant, warm-season lawns, but species and cultivar selection will be crucial for long-term performance.
Bradley S. Sladek, Gerald M. Henry, and Dick L. Auld
linear gradient irrigation HortScience 34 893 896 Qian, Y.L. Engelke, M.C. Foster, M.J.V. 2000 Salinity effects on zoysiagrass cultivars and experimental lines Crop Sci. 40 488 492 Richardson, M.D. Boyd, J.W. 2001 Establishing Zoysia japonica from