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Benjamin E. Deloso, Anders J. Lindström, Frank A. Camacho and Thomas E. Marler

, and 100% for the 3, 8, or 30 mg·g −1 plants. Table 1. The response of Zamia furfuracea and Zamia integrifolia stem cuttings to indole-3-butyric acid concentrations of 0, 3, 8, 16, or 30 mg·g −1 . N = 25. The Z. integrifolia IBA study lasted 356

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Thomas E. Marler and Leah E. Willis

Leaf gas exchange characteristics for 16 species of cycad were determined under field conditions in Miami, Fla. Net CO2 assimilation (ACO2) ranged from 4.9 μmol·m-2·s-1 for Lepidozamia peroffskyana Regel to 10.1 μmol·m-2·s-1 for Zamia furfuracea L. fil. in Aiton. Stomatal conductance to H2O (gs) was more variable, ranging from 85 mmol·m-2·s-1 for Cycas seemannii A. Br. to 335 mmol·m-2·s-1 for Encephalartos hildebrandtii A. Br. & Bouche. Transpiration (E) ranged from 1.7 mmol·m-2·s-1 for Cycas chamberlainii W.H. Brown & Keinholz to 4.8 mmol·m-2·s-1 for Encephalartos hildebrandtii. Highly variable E was more controlling of water-use efficiency than the less-variable ACO2. The difference between air and pinnae temperature ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 °C and was inversely related to mean gs among the species. The values within geographic regions representative of the native habitats of the species were highly variable. For example, two of the African species exhibited the highest and lowest values of water-use efficiency in the survey. Leaf gas exchange for the four largest species with arborescent growth form was less than that for the three small species with subterranean or short bulbous growth form. The diurnal variation in leaf gas exchange for Zamia furfuracea exhibited a two-peaked pattern with a distinct midday depression in ACO2 and gs. The ratio of dark respiration to maximum ACO2 for Zamia furfuracea was 0.04. As a group, the values for ACO2 and gs for these cycads ranked at the lower end of the range for all plants species.

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Thomas E. Marler and Nirmala Dongol

primary threat to many of the described species ( Donaldson, 2003 ; Norstog and Nicholls, 1997 ). Cycas revoluta Thunb., marketed as sago palm, and Zamia furfuracea L. f. ex Aiton, marketed as cardboard palm, are the two species most commonly

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Thomas E. Marler, Vivian Lee and Christopher A. Shaw

attained national and international popularity in the landscape and nursery industries. Cycas rumphii Miquel and Zamia furfuracea Aiton are also common but are less popular than C. revoluta internationally. Despite their horticultural appeal, the rest

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Thomas E. Marler and Nirmala Dongol

female cones of the cycad Zamia furfuracea and their significance in relation to pollination biology Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 111 241 252

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Trenton Hamada, Irene Terry, Robert Roemer and Thomas E. Marler

the range of all of the cycad species’ pollen, ≈15.5 × 21.1 to 19 × 28 µm. All cycad species exhibited relatively low pollen settling velocities ( Table 2 ), with means ranging from 0.73 cm·s −1 for Zamia furfuracea to 1.29 cm·s −1 for Zamia sp