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Jonathan M. Frantz, Bryon Hand, Lee Buckingham, and Somik Ghose

in a greenhouse could yield useful information about energy requirements of different structures and allow for simulations in different locations and cropping periods. A computer program was developed called Virtual Grower that combines the NREL

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Jonathan M. Frantz

growth within a more traditional warm, well-insulated greenhouse, without CO 2 injection. This experiment was combined with simulations using Virtual Grower software ( Frantz et al., 2010 ) that compared cost, fuel use, and C consumed because of heating

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Jennifer K. Boldt

). Energy savings. Using Virtual Grower 3.0.9, energy costs were estimated based on the location, materials, dimensions, and heating and lighting schedules of the greenhouse compartments in which the experiment was conducted. Total energy costs were

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Matthew G. Blanchard and Erik S. Runkle

18/18, 20/14, 16/22, 22/22, 24/18, or 20/26 °C for finish dates of 15 Mar., 15 Apr., or 15 May was estimated for Charlotte, NC, Grand Rapids, MI, and Minneapolis, MN, by using the Virtual Grower 2.51 software ( Frantz et al., 2010 ). Production time

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Charles R. Hall and Dewayne L. Ingram

°C minimum air temperature based on an analysis by Biotherm. Heating the air would require 109,498 MJ of heat energy December through May as calculated by Virtual Grower, a calculator for greenhouse heating requirements developed and maintained by the

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influenced broad mite populations. Broad mite numbers were greater on some genotypes than on others. Prime-Ark 45® may be susceptible to this pest. Virtual Grower Software Helps Calculate Greenhouse Heating Costs In many parts of the U.S., heating a

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight

remaining heat requirement. The heating requirements and fuel consumption of 122.4 L of propane per crop were determined using Virtual Grower, a calculator for greenhouse heating requirements developed and maintained by the Agricultural Research Service, U

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Celina Gómez, Robert C. Morrow, C. Michael Bourget, Gioia D. Massa, and Cary A. Mitchell

Life Support Biosph. Sci. 5 183 190 Frantz, J.M. Hand, B. Buckingham, L. Ghos, S. 2010 Virtual grower: Software to calculate heating costs of greenhouse production in the United States HortTechnology 20 778 785 Frantz, J.M. Joly, R.J. Mitchell, C

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Dewayne L. Ingram, Charles R. Hall, and Joshua Knight

Research Service 2017 Virtual Grower 3 model. 14 June 2017. < http://ars.usda.gov/Research/docs.htm?docid=22087 > U.S. Dept. Energy 2016 U.S. Life-cycle inventory database. National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL). 17 Apr. 2017. < https

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Michael P. Dzakovich, Celina Gómez, and Cary A. Mitchell

://www.agrireseau.qc.ca/legumesdeserre/Documents/CGC-Dorais2003fin2.PDF > Dumas, Y. Dadomo, M. Di Luccia, G. Grolier, P. 2003 Effects of environmental factors and agricultural techniques on antioxidant content of tomatoes J. Sci. Food Agr. 83 369 382 Frantz, J.M. Hand, B. Buckingham, L. Ghose, S. 2010 Virtual