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Xiaohua Du, Mengye Wang, Aneta Słomka, and Huichao Liu

interactions are genetic mechanisms that may cause nonadditive phenotypic inheritance in hybrids. However, different views exist on what portion of the heterotic variation is modulated by each of these mechanisms ( Fridman, 2015 ). Viola × wittrockiana Gams

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Geoffrey M. Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel

.J. Jones, M.L. 2010b Benzyladenine and gibberellic acid application prevents abscisic acid-induced leaf chlorosis in pansy and viola HortScience 45 925 933 Weaver, G.M. van Iersel, M.W. 2014 Reducing transpiration of pansies ( Viola ×wittrockiana ) with

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J.E. Erwin, R. Warner, T. Smith, and R. Wagner

Viola × wittrockiana Gams. cvs `Delta Pure Rose' and `Sorbet Yellow Frost' were grown under different photoperiod and temperature treatments (12–24 ± 2°C) for different lengths of time at different stages of development during the first 6 weeks after germination. Plants were grown with ambient light (≈9 hr) at 16°C before and after treatments. Days to anthesis and leaf number were lowest when plants were grown under night interruption from 2200–0200 hr (2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps) and daylight plus continuous light (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 from high-pressure sodium lamps) for `Sorbet Yellow Frost' and `Delta Pure Rose', respectively. Days to anthesis decreased as temperature increased from 12 to 24°C. Plant height and internode elongation were greatest and least in the night interruption and continuous light treatments, respectively. Branching decreased as temperature increased from 12 to 24°C. Implications of these data with respect to classification of Viola × wittrockiana flower induction and development of prefinished seedlings is discussed.

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Erik S. Runkle and Royal D. Heins

For many plants, light quality has a pronounced effect on plant morphology; light with a low red (R, 600 to 700 nm) to far-red (FR, 700 to 800 nm) ratio promotes stem elongation and a high R: FR, or blue light (B, 400 to 500 nm), suppresses it. In addition, FR light is required for rapid flowering in some species, particularly for long-day plants. Our objective was to quantify how flexible spectral filters, which selectively reduce FR, B, or R, influence plant height and flowering of the quantitative long-day plants Pisum sativum L. `Utrillo' and Viola ×wittrockiana Gams. `Crystal Bowl Yellow'. Plants were grown at 20 °C with reduced FR, B, or R environments or with a neutral density control (C) filter. Calculated phytochrome photoequilebria were 0.78, 0.73, 0.71, or 0.46 for the altered FR, B, C, or R environments, respectively. All filter treatments transmitted a similar photosynthetic photon flux. Sixteen-hour photoperiods were created with natural daylight supplemented with high-pressure sodium lamps positioned above filters. Viola grown under the FR filter never reached 100% flowering within 8 weeks, and visible bud appearance was delayed by at least 17 days compared to all other filters. The R and B filters enhanced peduncle length by at least 25% compared to the C or FR filters. In Pisum, average internode length was 2.2, 2.9, 3.4, and 3.7 cm under the FR, C, B, and R filters, respectively, all statistically different. Fresh and dry shoot weights were similar under the C and FR filters but were at least 35% greater under the B filter and 35% lower under the R filter.

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Genhua Niu, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

Pansy [Viola ×wittrockiana Gams. `Delta Yellow Blotch' (Yellow) and `Delta Primrose Blotch' (Primrose)] plants were grown in a greenhouse under two CO2 concentrations [ambient (≈400 μmol·mol-1) and enriched (≈600 μmol·mol-1)], three daily light integrals (DLI; 4.1, 10.6, and 15.6 mol·m-2·d-1), and nine combinations of day and night temperatures created by moving plants every 12 h among three temperatures (15, 20, and 25 °C). Time to flower decreased and rate of flower development increased as plant average daily temperature (ADT) increased at all DLIs for Yellow or at high and medium DLIs for Primrose. Increasing the DLI from 4.1 to 10.6 mol·m-2·d-1 also decreased time to flower by 4 and 12 days for Yellow and Primrose, respectively. Both cultivars' flower size and Yellow's dry weight [(DW); shoot, flower bud, and total] decreased linearly as plant ADT increased at high and medium DLIs, regardless of how temperature was delivered during day and night. DW in Yellow increased 50% to 100% when DLI increased from 4.1 to 10.6 mol·m-2·d-1 under both CO2 concentrations. Flower size in Yellow and Primrose increased 25% under both CO2 conditions as DLI increased from 4.1 to 10.6 mol·m-2·d-1, but there was no increase between 10.6 and 15.6 mol·m-2·d-1, regardless of CO2 concentration. Plant height and flower peduncle length in Yellow increased linearly as the difference between day and night temperatures (DIF) increased; the increase was larger under lower than higher DLIs. The ratio of leaf length to width (LL/LW) and petiole length in Yellow increased as DIF increased at medium and low DLIs. Carbon dioxide enrichment increased flower size by 4% to 10% and DW by 10% to 30% except for that of the shoot at medium DLI, but did not affect flower developmental rate or morphology. DW of vegetative and reproductive parts of the plant was correlated closely with photothermal ratio, a parameter that describes the combined effect of temperature and light.

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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, Ingram McCall, and Jonathan Frantz

.J. 1961 Distribution of boron in leaves Plant Physiol. 36 420 424 Krug, B.A. Whipker, B.E. Frantz, J.M. McCall, I. 2009 Characterization of calcium and boron deficiency and the effects of temporal disruption of calcium and boron supply on pansy ( Viola

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Jong-Goo Kang, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Sue K. Dove, Geoffrey M. Weaver, and Marc W. van Iersel

acid-induced leaf chlorosis in pansy and viola HortScience 45 925 933 Weaver, G.M. van Iersel, M.W. 2014 Antitranspirational efficacy and longevity of abscisic acid and a synthetic abscisic acid analog in pansies ( Viola × wittrockiana ) HortScience 49

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Nicole L. Waterland, John J. Finer, and Michelle L. Jones

Methods Plant material Viola × wittrockiana (pansy) ‘Dynamite Purple’ (Kieft-Pro-Seeds), ‘Karma Rose Fire’ (Goldsmith Seeds), or ‘Matrix Blue Frost’ (PanAmerican Seed) and Viola cornuta (viola) ‘Penny Deep Blue’ (Goldsmith Seeds), ‘Skippy

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BeYoung-Han Yoon, Harvey J. Lang, and B. Greg Cobb

Priming regimes were evaluated on pansy seeds (Viola ×wittrockiana Gam. `Crystal Bowl Sky Blue') in high-temperature germination tests. Priming regimes evaluated included CaCl2, MgCl2, K2HPO4, Na2HPO4, NaCl, KCl, KNO3, Na2SO4, and polyethylene glycol 15,000 (PEG15,000) at –1.0 and –2.0 MPa, for 3, 6, or 9 d at 23 °C. Primed and nonprimed control seeds were then germinated at 25, 30, or 35 °C. Total percent germination of nonprimed control seeds was significantly less at 35 °C than at 25 °C. Seeds primed with CaCl2 at –1.0 MPa for 3 d at 23 °C had significantly higher germination at 35 °C than all other priming regimes tested, including aerated PEG8000 at –1.0 MPa for 7 d at 15 °C. Seed respiration, measured by O2 uptake, during germination of seeds primed with CaCl2 was higher than for control seeds or those primed with PEG8000. Priming pansy seed with CaCl2 at –1.0 MPa for 3 d at 23 °C was effective in increasing seedling emergence and for reducing the time of emergence in summer greenhouse studies.

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Richard O. Kelly, Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Rick K. Schoellhorn

Florida is one of the top wholesale producers of bedding plants, and in 2003 was ranked fourth in annual bedding plant production and fifth in potted pansy/viola production. Evaluation of pansy cultivars is vital for continued growth of the industry. We evaluated 210 cultivars of pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana) (164 new cultivars) in replicated class tests at the University of Florida's Gulf Coast Research and Education Center at Bradenton, Fla., from 2000–04 to determine the best-of-class and use them in future trials to compare against new entries in the same class. In this report, we provide objective plant measurements of vegetative and floral characteristics as well as subjective performance ratings. Subjective ratings were on a 1 to 7 scale with the highest rating of 7 for excellent. In general, overall performance ratings (combined foliage, flower, arthropod, and disease ratings) ≥5.5 were considered outstanding. Pansy cultivars were grouped into classes based on flower color and pattern. Best-of-class selections that had an outstanding overall performance rating in one or more contested trials, never falling below 5.0 in other contested trials, were: (black class) `Accord/Banner Black Beauty', (blue shades/tints class) `Nature Blue', (blue with blotch class) `Nature Ocean', (mix class) `Panola Clear Mixture', (pink shades/tints with blotch class) `Nature Pink Shades', [purple (dark), blue-violet with white cap class] `Nature Beacon', [purple (dark), blue-violet/white face with blotch class] `Panola Purple With Face', (purple with light eye class) `Baby Bingo Lavender Blue', (white class) `Nature White', (yellow class) `Nature Yellow', (yellow with blotch and purple, blue-violet cap class) `Iona Purple & Yellow With Blotch', (yellow with blotch and red cap class) `Bingo Red & Yellow', (yellow with blotch and red cap class) `Panola Yellow With Blotch', (yellow with dark veins class) `Whiskers Yellow'. We believe these cultivars would perform well in the southern U.S. or areas of the world with similar heat and cold hardiness zones.