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Suejin Park, Youyoun Moon, and Nicole L. Waterland

( Viola cornuta ‘Sorbet XP Yellow’). Viola was selected in this research because it is one of the top popular bedding plants in the United States. Materials and Methods Expt. 1: Effects of osmotic treatment on shelf life in viola. Seeds of V . cornuta

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Xiaohua Du, Mengye Wang, Aneta Słomka, and Huichao Liu

, accession numbers. and origins of Viola cornuta and Viola × wittrockiana lines used for inter- and intraspecific crosses. Fig. 1. ( A ) Plants of inbred lines of Viola cornuta during flowering. ( B–E ) Plants of inbred lines of Viola ×wittrockiana

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Daiichiro Miyajima

The seed producing system in viola (Viola ×cornuta) was investigated to improve seed yield and to save labor. In a flower five anthers sequentially dehisced; pollen grains were continuously supplied to the anterior petal, which played a significant role in pollination, throughout the flowering period. Evidence from pollen and ovule number suggests that the species is facultative autogamy. Each flower opened more than 10 days was independent of the success in fertilization and kept seed producing ability during the flower longevity period. Pollen grains also maintained viability during the flower longevity period. Pollinators were indispensable for pollination of viola, but pollination in viola was done by a different mechanism from the typical insect-mediated pollination that sticky pollen grains adhere to the exposed stigmas. Pollen grains, accumulated around the entrance of the stigmatic cavity, entered into the cavity by the movement of pollinators. Although the visitation of pollinators was occasional, solitary bees primarily contributed to the pollination of viola. On the other hand, germination of pollen grains on the stigmatic surface was under 50%. Seed set was much lower than the germination percentage of pollen grains. A viola flower had the ability for additional pollinations and fertilization for some days after the fertilization success in some ovules in the flower. This characteristic suggested that repeated pollination is effective to increase the number of mature seeds in a capsule.

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Nicole L. Waterland, John J. Finer, and Michelle L. Jones

Methods Plant material Viola × wittrockiana (pansy) ‘Dynamite Purple’ (Kieft-Pro-Seeds), ‘Karma Rose Fire’ (Goldsmith Seeds), or ‘Matrix Blue Frost’ (PanAmerican Seed) and Viola cornuta (viola) ‘Penny Deep Blue’ (Goldsmith Seeds), ‘Skippy

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Christopher J. Currey, Roberto G. Lopez, and Neil S. Mattson

Energy accounts for one of the largest costs in commercial greenhouse (GH) production of annual bedding plants. Therefore, many bedding plant producers are searching for energy efficient production methods. Our objectives were to quantify the impact of growing annual bedding plants in an unheated high tunnel (HT) compared with a traditional heated GH environment at two northern latitudes. Ten popular bedding plants [angelonia (Angelonia angustifolia), vinca (Catharanthus roseus), celosia (Celosia argentea), dianthus (Dianthus chinensis), geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum), petunia (Petunia ×hybrida), french marigold (Tagetes patula), viola (Viola ×cornuta), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and osteospermum (Osteospermum ecklonis)] were grown both in an unheated HT and a glass-glazed GH with an 18 °C temperature set point beginning on 1 Apr. 2011 at both Cornell University (Ithaca, NY) and Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN). Although seven of the species exhibited a delay in flowering in the HT as compared with the heated GH, there were no differences in days to flower (DTF) for geranium, osteospermum, and viola grown at Cornell and viola at Purdue. The remaining species exhibited delays in flowering in the HT environment, which varied based on species. At Purdue, several species were lost because of a cold temperature event necessitating a second planting. For the second planting, osteospermum was the only species grown that flowered significantly later in the HT; 7 days later than the GH-grown plants. Production of cold-tolerant annuals in unheated or minimally heated HTs appears to be a viable alternative for commercial producers aiming to reduce energy costs.

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William B. Miller, Neil S. Mattson, Xiaorong Xie, Danghui Xu, Christopher J. Currey, Kasey L. Clemens, Roberto G. Lopez, Michael Olrich, and Erik S. Runkle

Raspberry’, Petunia × hybrida Vilm. ‘Single Dreams Midnight’, Viola cornuta L. ‘Penny Lane Mixed’ [in 288-cell size (6-mL volume) plug trays], and Angelonia angustifolia Benth. ‘Serena Lavendar’, Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey ‘Pinto Red’ [in

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Jennifer K. Boldt

Neon Rose’, dianthus ‘Super Parfait Raspberry’, viola ( Viola cornuta L. ‘Sorbet Plum Velvet’), and angelonia ‘Serena Purple’, respectively ( Blanchard and Runkle, 2011 ). Although different cultivars were used in this experiment, the set points for WN

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Madeline W. Olberg and Roberto G. Lopez

). Currey et al. (2014) also found that ‘Dreams Midnight’ petunia, ‘Super Parfait Raspberry’ dianthus, and ‘Penny Lane Mix’ viola ( Viola × cornuta ), planted during week 14, experienced no delay in development when grown in an unheated high tunnel

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Zhanao Deng, Fahrettin Goktepe, and Brent K. Harbaugh

plants, such as alstroemeria ( Alstroemeria L.), lily ( Lilium L.), orchid (Orchidaceae), and pansy ( Viola × wittrockiana Gams.)/viola ( Viola cornuta L.). Information on the inheritance of the spots in these ornamental crops is not available or

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Nichole F. Edelman and Michelle L. Jones

sensitivity were compared ( Edelman et al., 2014 ). Although Clark et al. (2001) demonstrated that the seedling hypocotyl elongation screen was a good predictor of mature plant sensitivity in geranium, we found that Viola cornuta ‘Sorbet XP Orange’, Viola