The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) was genetically transformed with the bar gene, conferring tolerance to the phosphinothricin-based herbicide glufosinate. Plants of one `Pilgrim' transclone grown under greenhouse conditions were significantly injured by foliar treatments of 100 mg·L-1 glufosinate, although the injury was less severe when compared to untransformed plants. However, the same transclone grown outdoors in coldframes survived foliar sprays of 500 mg·L-1 glufosinate and higher, while untransformed plants were killed at 300 mg·L-1. Actively growing shoot tips were the most sensitive part of the plants and at higher dosages of glufosinate, shoot-tip injury was evident on the transclone. Injured transgenic plants quickly regrew new shoots. Shoots of goldenrod (Solidago sp.) and creeping sedge (Carex chordorrhizia), two weeds common to cranberry production areas, were seriously injured or killed at 400 mg·L-1 glufosinate when grown in either the greenhouse or coldframe environment. Stable transmission and expression of herbicide tolerance was observed in both inbred and outcrossed progeny of the above cranberry transclone. Expected segregation ratios were observed in the outcrossed progeny and some outcrossed individuals demonstrated significantly enhanced tolerance over the original transclone, with no tip death at levels up to 8000 mg·L-1. Southern analysis of the original transclone and two progeny selections with enhanced tolerance showed an identical banding pattern, indicating that the difference in tolerance levels was not due to rearrangement of the transgene. The enhanced tolerance of these first generation progeny was retained when second generation selfed progeny were tested.
Eric L. Zeldin, Thomas P. Jury, Rodney A. Serres, and Brent H. McCown
Mark K. Ehlenfeldt, James J. Polashock, Nicholi Vorsa, Juan Zalapa, Fernando de la Torre, and James L. Luteyn
that will benefit both conventional and molecular aspects of Vaccinium breeding. References Cited Christ, E. 1977 Crossbreedings between cranberries ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) and cowberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) Acta
Robert M. Devlin, Bert M. Zuckerman, and I. E. Demoranville
The purpose of this study was to test the effect of malathion and IAA on color development in the cultivated cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon var. ‘Early Black’. Dosage and time of application were evaluated. Quantitative analyses for antho-cyanins of berries fresh-frozen at harvest showed that applications of 800, 1600, 2400 ppm malathion all caused a highly significant increase in color. Applications of IAA at 30 and 50 ppm did not affect color development. Treated and untreated berries were also analyzed for anthocyanin development after 7 and 14 days in common storage. No significant differences in size or yield were observed between treated and untreated berries. It was concluded that malathion applied 2 weeks before harvest at 1600 ppm would give good color enhancement and still be within the label restrictions for the use of this material on cranberries.
Luping Qu, James Polashock, and Nicholi Vorsa
Putative transgenic cranberry plants have been achieved via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Leaf explants were transformed with a supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105, harboring the binary vector P35SGUSint and nptII selectable marker genes. Inoculation of precultured explants (≈10 days on regeneration medium) coupled with sonicasion improved transformation efficiency significantly. Adventitious shoots were directly regenerated from explants. Putative transformed shoots were identified by being kanamycin-resistant and GUS-positive. Stable GUS gene expression (turning blue) could be detected within 1 h of incubation at 37 °C. Confirmation of transformation by molecular analysis is in progress. Eight putative transgenic cranberry plants were obtained. All appeared morphologically normal. This appears to be the first success in achieving cranberry transformed plants by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Optimizing the transformation system is ongoing.
A. Shawa, G. W. Eaton, and P. A. Bowen
Analyses of yield components of ‘BenLear’, ‘Bergman’ and ‘McFarlin’ cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) were made in Washington state and British Columbia. Important yield components were fruit set, the proportion of uprights that flowered, and upright numbers. Negative correlations in ‘McFarlin’ between number of uprights and each of proportion flowering, fruit-set, and berry size suggest competition between components in this cultivar.
G. W. Eaton and T. R. Kyte
Yield component analysis was used to study the components of yield diversity in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). The proportion of uprights flowering and fruit-set were identified as important contributors to yield diversity. Numbers of uprights, flowers per flowering upright, and fruit-size were less important. Isolated yield components were largely influenced by uncontrolled variation. However, component compensation effects were identified. Fruit-set compensated for uprights/dm2 in several areas. Fruit-size compensated for uprights/dm2 and fruit-set for flower number in only one area. Fruit-set and fruit-size were positively correlated in two cases. The numerical techniques employed have positively identified promising areas for further research.
The response of ‘Early Black’ cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) to differential levels of N applied to new bogs on an Atsion sand in New Jersey was monitored over a 5-year period. More than 17 kg N/ha/year did not increase the earliness of bearing in a new bog nor did it increase the productivity of a bog. Greater amounts of N resulted in poorer berry color in early harvested fruit, increased fruit rot and vegetative growth. A strong biennial bearing tendency appeared to be related to new upright production. Differential N treatment did not influence this biennial bearing tendency. N analysis of plant tissue was not an effective diagnostic method of measuring fertilizer response, due in part to the effective dilution of plant N content by increased vegetative growth. N deficiency symptoms did not develop in the range of 0.74 to 0.82% N in the cranberry plant. Vegetative growth was particularly sensitive to N fertilization and warrants consideration as a diagnostic tool for evaluating N response.
Catherine C. Neto, Christine A. Dao, Michelle R. Salvas, Wesley R. Autio, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel
cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) powder J. Agr. Food Chem. 52 188 195 10.1021/jf034970s Vvedenskaya, I.O. Vorsa, N. 2004 Flavonoid composition over fruit development and maturation in American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait Plant Sci. 167 1043
Jenny L. Bolivar-Medina, Camilo Villouta, Beth Ann Workmaster, and Amaya Atucha
bud development in cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) Botany 97 101 111 10.1139/cjb-2018-0058 Brown, A.O. McNeil, J.N. 2006 Fruit production in cranberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium macrocarpon ): A bet-hedging strategy to optimize reproductive effort Amer
Melissa Broussard, Sujaya Rao, William P. Stephen, and Linda White
pollination and fruiting refine pollinator comparisons for cranberry [ Vaccinium macrocarpon (Ericaceae)] Amer. J. Bot. 90 1425 1432 Cane, J.H. Schiffhauer, D. Kervin, L.J. 1996 Pollination, foraging, and nesting ecology of the leaf-cutting bee Megachile