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Eric L. Zeldin, Thomas P. Jury, Rodney A. Serres, and Brent H. McCown

The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) was genetically transformed with the bar gene, conferring tolerance to the phosphinothricin-based herbicide glufosinate. Plants of one `Pilgrim' transclone grown under greenhouse conditions were significantly injured by foliar treatments of 100 mg·L-1 glufosinate, although the injury was less severe when compared to untransformed plants. However, the same transclone grown outdoors in coldframes survived foliar sprays of 500 mg·L-1 glufosinate and higher, while untransformed plants were killed at 300 mg·L-1. Actively growing shoot tips were the most sensitive part of the plants and at higher dosages of glufosinate, shoot-tip injury was evident on the transclone. Injured transgenic plants quickly regrew new shoots. Shoots of goldenrod (Solidago sp.) and creeping sedge (Carex chordorrhizia), two weeds common to cranberry production areas, were seriously injured or killed at 400 mg·L-1 glufosinate when grown in either the greenhouse or coldframe environment. Stable transmission and expression of herbicide tolerance was observed in both inbred and outcrossed progeny of the above cranberry transclone. Expected segregation ratios were observed in the outcrossed progeny and some outcrossed individuals demonstrated significantly enhanced tolerance over the original transclone, with no tip death at levels up to 8000 mg·L-1. Southern analysis of the original transclone and two progeny selections with enhanced tolerance showed an identical banding pattern, indicating that the difference in tolerance levels was not due to rearrangement of the transgene. The enhanced tolerance of these first generation progeny was retained when second generation selfed progeny were tested.

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Luping Qu, James Polashock, and Nicholi Vorsa

Putative transgenic cranberry plants have been achieved via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Leaf explants were transformed with a supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105, harboring the binary vector P35SGUSint and nptII selectable marker genes. Inoculation of precultured explants (≈10 days on regeneration medium) coupled with sonicasion improved transformation efficiency significantly. Adventitious shoots were directly regenerated from explants. Putative transformed shoots were identified by being kanamycin-resistant and GUS-positive. Stable GUS gene expression (turning blue) could be detected within 1 h of incubation at 37 °C. Confirmation of transformation by molecular analysis is in progress. Eight putative transgenic cranberry plants were obtained. All appeared morphologically normal. This appears to be the first success in achieving cranberry transformed plants by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Optimizing the transformation system is ongoing.

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Catherine C. Neto, Christine A. Dao, Michelle R. Salvas, Wesley R. Autio, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

Characterization of flavonols in cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) powder J. Agr. Food Chem. 52 188 195 Vvedenskaya, I.O. Vorsa, N. 2004 Flavonoid composition over fruit development and maturation in American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait Plant Sci. 167

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Jenny L. Bolivar-Medina, Camilo Villouta, Beth Ann Workmaster, and Amaya Atucha

cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) Botany 97 101 111 Brown, A.O. McNeil, J.N. 2006 Fruit production in cranberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium macrocarpon ): A bet-hedging strategy to optimize reproductive effort Amer. J. Bot. 93 910 916 Clark, J.R. Finn, C

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Melissa Broussard, Sujaya Rao, William P. Stephen, and Linda White

pollination and fruiting refine pollinator comparisons for cranberry [ Vaccinium macrocarpon (Ericaceae)] Amer. J. Bot. 90 1425 1432 Cane, J.H. Schiffhauer, D. Kervin, L.J. 1996 Pollination, foraging, and nesting ecology of the leaf-cutting bee Megachile

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Brett Suhayda, Carolyn J. DeMoranville, Hilary A. Sandler, Wesley R. Autio, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

for inhibition of swamp dodder ( Cuscuta gronovii ) seedling emergence and survival on cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) bogs Weed Technol. 11 318 323 Strik, B.C. Poole, A. 1991 Timing and severity of pruning effects on cranberry yield components and

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Jennifer Johnson-Cicalese, James J. Polashock, Josh A. Honig, Jennifer Vaiciunas, Daniel L. Ward, and Nicholi Vorsa

cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae) Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123 41 47 Byrne, D.H. 2012 Trends in fruit breeding, p. 3–36. In: M.L. Badenes and D.H. Byrne (eds.). Fruit breeding. Springer, New York, NY California Office of Environmental Health

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Lisa Wasko DeVetter, Rebecca Harbut, and Jed Colquhoun

. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ Elle, E. 1996 Reproductive trade-offs in genetically distinct clones of Vaccinium macrocarpon , the american cranberry Oecologia 107 61 70 Goff, E.S. 1901 Investigation of flower-buds Annu. Rpt. Wisc. Agr. Expt

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Ricardo Cesped-Ruiz* and Bingru Huang

The American cranberry often undergoes drought stress during the summer. However, the physiological response of this species to drought is not well understood. This study was designed to determine the effects of drought on two commercial cranberry cultivars of high potential yield, `Ben Lear' and `Stevens', during a vegetative stage. The plants were subjected to drought for 15 days in a greenhouse. Soil water content, leaf water content, leaf photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, differential leaf-air temperature, photochemical efficiency (Fv'/Fm') and the actual PSII efficiency (deltaF/Fm') decreased in those plants subjected to drought. Drought reduced differential leaf-air temperature at day 6 of treatment and stomatal conductance and transpiration starting at day 9 and photosynthetic rate at day 13. Drought decreased leaf water content at day 14 and Fv'/Fm' and PSII efficiency at day 15. Our results indicated that cranberry plants in vegetative stage were sensitive to drought for both cultivars and stomatal conductance was the most sensitive parameter among those examined for both cultivars.