A plant nutrient delivery system that uses a microporous, hydrophilic tube was developed with potential application for crop production in the microgravity of space. The tube contains a nutrient solution and delivers it to the roots. Pumps attached to the tubing create a very small suction that holds the solution within the tube. This system was used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) for 107 days in a controlled environment at suctions of 0.40, 1.48, or 2.58 kPa. The water absorbed through the pores of the tube by baby diaper sections decreased as suction increased. Correspondingly, final plant biomass, seed number, and spikelet number also tended to decrease as suction increased. The reduced yield at higher suction suggests that the plants experienced water stress, although all suctions were below those typical of soils at field capacity.
One of the primary production challenges red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) growers in the Pacific northwestern United States confront is root lesion nematode [RLN (Pratylenchus penetrans)]. In this perennial production system, red raspberry serves as a sustained host for RLN. When a red raspberry planting is slated for removal in the fall, a new red raspberry planting quickly follows in the same field the following spring. The primary crop that occurs in rotation with red raspberry is a winter wheat cover crop to provide soil coverage and protection during the winter. The objectives of this research were to determine if winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) provides a green bridge for RLN in continuous red raspberry production systems and to determine if modified winter cover cropping practices can be used to reduce population densities of RLN before replanting red raspberry. Four trials were established in fields being replanted to red raspberry and the following modified winter cover cropping practices were considered: cover crop planting date (at fumigation or 2 weeks after fumigation), termination date (cover crop kill with herbicide 2 or 6 weeks before incorporation compared with the industry standard of incorporation immediately before planting), and the additional application of methomyl. ‘Rosalyn’ and ‘Bobtail’ winter wheat planted as cover crops in these trials were demonstrated to be maintenance hosts for RLN (ranging from 10 to 947 RLN/g winter wheat root across trials) allowing them to be a green bridge for RLN to infect the following red raspberry crop. Altering winter wheat cover crop planting date, termination date with herbicide, or methomyl application did not affect RLN population densities in the subsequent red raspberry crop. Although planting an RLN maintenance host may be of concern to growers, the advantages of reduced soil erosion and nitrate leaching associated with cover cropping outweigh the perceived risk to the subsequent red raspberry crop.
Consumer demand for organic and sustainably produced products has increased the interest in organic wine grape (Vitis vinifera) production. However, organic production can be challenging, and weed management is a critical issue during the establishment of an organic vineyard. In 2009, the effectiveness of five cover crop treatments and cultivation regimes was evaluated for two years for weed control in a newly established organic vineyard of ‘Pinot noir précoce’ and ‘Madeleine angevine’ grape cultivars in northwestern Washington State. Alleyway management treatments were cultivation in alleyways with hand weeding in the vine row (control), grass cover crop which included perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. perenne) and red fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. arenaria) seeded in the alleyway and in-row tillage with a specialty offset-type cultivator, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cover crop with in-row string-trimming, austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum ssp. sativum var. arvense) cover crop with in-row string-trimming, and winter wheat–austrian winter pea cover crop mix with in-row string-trimming. In 2009, weed dry biomass was lowest in the alleyway of the control (0.8 g·m−2) and offset cultivator treatments (6.3 g·m−2) on 3 Aug. and tended to be lowest in the alleyway of the control (4.8 g·m−2) and offset cultivator treatments (16.0 g·m−2) on 27 Sept. In the second year of establishment (2010), winter wheat and austrian winter pea were eliminated from the plots by mid-July, and white clover (Trifolium repens) and perennial ryegrass were the dominant weed species and accounted for a majority of the total weeds. On average over the two-year period, the control treatment required the most time for alleyway management (92 h·ha−1) followed by the offset cultivator treatment (64 h·ha−1), while the winter wheat, austrian winter pea, and winter wheat–austrian winter pea mixture required 32 to 42 h·ha−1. ‘Madeline angevine’ produced more shoot growth than ‘Pinot noir précoce’ in Sept. 2010 (42.3 and 25.9 cm respectively), and shoot growth of both cultivars in the control treatment was significantly longer (125.0 cm) than under any other treatment (55.4 to 93.0 cm), illustrating the importance of weed control during vineyard establishment. In this study, the most effective weed management regime, although also the most time consuming, included a vegetative-free zone around the vines (e.g., in-row) maintained by hand weeding and a cultivated alleyway.
‘Sparkle’ and ‘Honeoye’ strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) were planted into plots of newly seeded perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), or no grass. After a 1985 windstorm during the green fruit stage, yield was higher in living mulch plots than in control plots and fruit from control plots were small and dark relative to those from the ryegrass plots. In 1986, all plots had similar yields. All plants grew at similar rates during the establishment year. Later, strawberry plants in living mulch plots had smaller leaves than plants in control plots. Plants in all treatments contained above the critical concentrations of leaf N on most sampling dates. Soil under grass was less compacted and was cooler than cultivated soil. Living mulch prevented annual weed establishment after the first and improved winter survival of flower buds. A tillering type of ryegrass was the best living mulch of the three species tested. It quickly covered the ground but did not spread into the crop rows, and grew tall enough to afford wind protection.
Plant material and cultural conditions. Radish ( Raphanus sativus , cv. Cherry Belle), soybean ( Glycine max , cv. Hoyt), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum , cv. Perigee) seeds were pre-germinated for 24, 36, and 48 h, respectively, and subsequently
, 2009). OxO was first isolated and characterized from wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) ( Lane et al., 1993 ). It catalyzes the oxidation of oxalic acid by molecular oxygen to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Researchers have found that
silty, mixed, mesic Xerollic Camborthid) at the Oregon State University Malheur Experiment Station, Ontario, OR. The fields had previously been planted to bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The wheat stubble was shredded and the field deep
-2194(03)00159-5 Jurado-Expósito, M. López-Granados, F. Atenciano, S. García-Torres, L. González-Andújar, J.L. 2003 Discrimination of weed seedlings, wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) stubble and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) by near
and chlorophyll as indicators of nitrogen deficiency in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) Field Crops Res. 91 35 49 Chen, P. Haboudane, D. Tremblay, N. Wang, J. Vigneault, P. Li, B. 2010 New spectral indicator assessing the efficiency of crop nitrogen
the yield of the next vegetable crop grown due to N immobilization. Although winter grass cover crops, such as wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) or winter rye ( Secale cereale ), are often used in vegetable NT production systems to reduce soil erosion and to