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Ian Lane, Eric Watkins, and Marla Spivak

( Trifolium repens L.) conducted in Lexington, Kentucky ( Larson et al., 2014 ), found 37 associated bee species. These plant species are typically considered weeds in the United States and are sometimes eliminated through the use of broadleaf herbicides

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James D. McCurdy, J. Scott McElroy, and Elizabeth A. Guertal

replication of this study. Table 3. April-observed spring white clover ( Trifolium repens ) density as affected by scalping and scalping in combination with mechanical surface disruption methods. Season 2 establishment densities were lower ( P < 0.01) than

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Rebecca M. Tashiro, Joseph H. Bouton, and Wayne A. Parrott

White clover ( Trifolium repens L.) is an annual or short-lived perennial found throughout temperate regions of the world ( Gibson and Cope, 1985 ). Originally native to the Mediterranean ( Ellison et al., 2006 ), white clover grows in a wide range

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Brenda Biermann and R.G. Linderman

Abstract

The establishment and performance of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) formed by Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter) Gerd. & Trappe were studied on geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey) and subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) in various growth media at 2 P fertility levels. Colonization by G. fasciculatum was not extensive and shoot dry weight and P uptake consequently were not increased by VAM in soilless media such as peat, bark, perlite, and vermiculite. In media containing soil and fertilized at the low P level, roots were colonized extensively by G. fasciculatum, and host shoot growth and P concentrations were increased by VAM. Host growth enhancement by VAM was not observed at the higher P fertility level. Differences in colonization and mycorrhizal response in different fertilized growth media were correlated negatively with the logarithm of the equilibrium solution P concentration. Colonization, growth response, and P uptake by geranium inoculated with G. mosseae (Nic. & Gerd.) Gerd. & Trappe or Acaulospora spinosa Walker & Trappe were affected by growth medium and P fertilizer in the same way as plants inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Peat mosses from different sources varied considerably in their effects on mycorrhiza formation by G. fasciculatum, and on growth response of geranium when the peat was diluted with different amounts of soil. These differences appeared to be related to the equilibrium solution P concentration of the fertilized peats, and not to extractable P of the unfertilized peats. Use of rock phosphate or bonemeal instead of NaH2PO4 as a source of P did not improve the establishment of VAM and host growth response in soil, peat, or vermiculite. Addition of 5–10% Turface, bentonite, silt loam soil, or clay subsoil to peat or vermiculite resulted in increased colonization of host roots and significant mycorrhizal growth response, whereas amendment with liquid sludge inhibited formation of mycorrhizae.

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Paige E. Boyle, Michelle M. Wisdom, and Michael D. Richardson

establishment of microclover and ‘Dutch’ white clover ( Trifolium repens ) into bermudagrass ( McCurdy et al., 2013a ) as a nitrogen source for the turf. Further research is warranted to evaluate different white clover varieties in turf settings. The white

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Jesse Puka-Beals and Greta Gramig

combined with living mulches ( Pfeiffer et al., 2016 ). We also hypothesized that, in comparison with grass living mulches, soil fertility would be improved during production by using a leguminous (Fabaceae) living mulch, such as clover [ Trifolium sp

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David Granatstein and Kent Mullinix

( Trifolium repens L.), mowed; and CLF, dwarf New Zealand white clover ( Trifolium repens L.), flamed. The WCM, SPM, and ALM treatments were applied on 27 May 1999. Mustard and clover were planted on 17 Aug. 1999 and rye on 31 Aug. 1999. Shredded paper was

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Ian G. Lane, James Wolfin, Eric Watkins, and Marla Spivak

, and management. European lawn flowers, such as white clover ( Trifolium repens ), attract a variety of insect visitors in U.S. landscapes ( Larson et al., 2014 ), but native plants have been found to attract greater quantities and, in some cases

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M. Lenny Wells

( Triflolium in-carnatum ), ‘Durana’ white clover ( Trifolium repens ), or ball clover ( Trifolium nigrescens ) were used as orchard floor covers on nearly 15% of surveyed orchards in 2005, and on 47% of orchards in 2008 ( Tables 1 and 2 ). SOM and soil NO 3

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M. Lenny Wells

2005, clover ( Trifolium sp.) was used in only 15% of surveyed pecan orchards in Georgia. By 2008, nearly half of all pecan orchards surveyed used clover as an orchard floor cover ( Wells, 2009b ). Georgia poultry farmers produce over 10.2 million tons