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Open access

Edward A. Stahly

Abstract

Calcium concentration of ‘Golden Delicious’ (Malus × domestica Borkh.) apples was reduced with a single, early application of 50 ppm TIBA. Early, midseason, and late sequences of 3 sprays of CaCl2 (3.6 g/1) were applied to evaluate timing effectiveness for increasing fruit Ca concentration and decreasing fruit pitting. Mid-June, July, and August sprays increased fruit Ca concentration less than later sprays, but more effectively reduced fruit pitting. Chemical name used: 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA).

Open access

E. A. Stahly and Max W. Williams

Abstract

The chemical 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA 1,2) has been reported by workers in the United States (1,2,3,4,8) and other countries (6,7) to influence flower bud initiation and branch angle of apple trees. This report describes injury to fruits and pedicels of Golden Delicious and to foliage of Golden Delicious, Delicious and Winesap apple trees from the application of 25 ppm TIBA about 4 weeks after bloom in North Central Washington.

Full access

Michael W. Smith and William D. Goff

patch budded to ‘Zinner’ 11–15 Aug. 2013. Rootstock tops were left intact with the following factorial treatment combination applied 31 Mar. 2014 (typical rootstock budbreak stage 3 to 4) to force the patch buds. Treatments were TIBA at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, or

Open access

David G. Himelrick and Morris Ingle

Abstract

Six mid-season orchard sprays of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA), oxalic acid, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), and CaCl, did not consistently influence Ca concentration in leaf, fruit peel, or fruit flesh of 6 cultivars of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

Open access

Jung M. Lee and N. E. Looney

Abstract

Regrowth of decapitated seedlings of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) of a compact phenotype revealed stronger apical dominance and narrower branching angle than normal seedlings. Normal and compact seedlings were also found to differ in their phyllotaxy at lower nodes. Spraying with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) before and/or after decapitation increased apparent apical dominance in compact seedlings; reduced shoot thickness in normal seedlings; and reduced shoot length and increased branching angle of both phenotypes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) increased shoot length and reversed the TIBA effect on branch angle in the compact seedlings. These differing growth regulator effects are thought to relate to differences in endogenous growth substance levels. Shoot tips of normal seedlings were higher in abscisic acid (ABA) but the dwarf pea bioassay indicated the presence of another acidic inhibitor present only in the compact seedlings. Normal seedlings exhibited higher levels of gibberellin-like growth promoters.

Free access

Steven T. McNamara and Cary A. Mitchell

The relative contributions of auxin and ethylene (C2H4) in stimulating the initiation of adventitious root primordia (ARP) and their subsequent development into adventitious roots (ARs) by flooded tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. PI 406966) seedlings were evaluated using TIBA and STS. Flooded plants treated with STS (F + STS) produced ≈ 40% as many emerged ARs as plants that were flooded only (F). Only 7% of the ARP initiated by F + STS plants developed enough to emerge through the epidermis by 120 hours of treatment compared with 95% emerged for F plants. A band of TIBA applied below the lowest leaves of flooded plants (F + TIBA) virtually eliminated AR formation. Plants with two or four leaves below the TIBA band produced 16- and 35-fold more ARs, respectively, than those with no leaves below the TIBA band. Relative to nonflooded (NF) plants, F + STS plants exhibited a nearly 40-fold increase in C2H4 evolution, while F and F + TIBA plants exhibited about a 5-fold increase in C2H4 production. These results suggest that auxin accumulation at or above the floodline is essential for ARP initiation and that auxin action is not mediated through C2H4. Ethylene may be required for elongation of flood-induced ARP leading to their emergence as ARs. Chemical names used: 2,3.5 -triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA): silver thiosulphate (STS).

Open access

Edward A. Stahly and Max W. Williams

Abstract

Five-year-old ‘Anjou’ pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) were sprayed with (2-chloro-ethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat) (1500 ppm), (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) (250 or 500 ppm), or succinic acid-2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide) (1000 ppm) plus ethephon (250 ppm) 4 or 6 weeks after full bloom (AFB) for 2 consecutive seasons. Chlormequat increased fruit set after 1 application, but 2 applications of the other chemicals were required to increase fruit set. Two consecutive years of chlormequat applications increased yieid about 50%, 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) (50 ppm) applied 4 weeks AFB did not affect fruit set, but induced many short shoots of ‘Anjou’ pear trees.

Open access

G. K. Brown, W. F. Kwolek, D. E. Wuertz, G. A. Jumper, C. L. Wilson, and S. R. Carr

Abstract

Water solutions of commercial formulations of growth regulators were pressure-injected into the trunks of topped American elm (Ulmus americana L.) trees in June to evaluate their ability to reduce sprout regrowth. Regrowth was significantly reduced by methyl 2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylate (chlorflurenol), N-[4-methyl-3-[[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amino] = phenyl]acetamide (fluoridamid), l,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazine-dione (maleic hydrazide), succinic acid,2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA); α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxypenyl)-5-pyrimidine = methanol (ancymidol) and (2-chloroethyl)trimethyl-ammonium chloride (chlormequat) were ineffective. Some undesirable effects on the tree and foliage were observed. Maleic hydrazide (MH) and daminozide (SADH) were selected for additional field tests at 3 concentration levels on topped American elm and American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). Regrowth was significantly reduced and foliage condition was acceptable for the high concentration of SADH and the low concentration of MH. Successive measurements in both experiments showed that sprout regrowth was reduced by an amount equivalent to at least 1 year of growth during the first 2 seasons following treatment.

Free access

Piyada Alisha Tantasawat, Atitaya Sorntip, and Paniti Pornbungkerd

[indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA], auxin transport inhibitor (TIBA), cytokinin (KIN), gibberellin [gibberellic acid (GA 3 )], ABA, ethylene [(2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethrel; ethephon; CEPA)] and growth retardant (MH) have been applied exogenously to

Open access

Yan Chen, Min Jin, Cui-yun Wu, and Jian-ping Bao

in different parts of the flowering stage can have a key role in calyx abscission. Plant growth regulators are synthetic chemical components, such as IAA, naphthalene acetic acid, ethephon, paclobutrazol, and TIBA, that can effectively control the