Science and math achievement scores of third, fourth, and fifth grade elementary students were studied using a sample of 196 students from McAuliffe Elementary School, located in McAllen, Texas. The experimental group of students participated in a school garden program in addition to traditional classroom-based math and science methods, while students within the control group were taught math and science using only traditional classroom-based methods. No statistically significant differences were found in comparisons of science students' achievement scores, indicating that those students using the school garden program as an additional method to learn science benefited similarly to those who learned using only traditional science classroom-based instruction. However, results indicated statistically significant differences in comparisons of students' math achievement scores, showing that those students who received traditional math instruction had more improved math achievement scores compared to those taught using the school garden program. Results also found no statistically significant differences between gender and ethnic background comparisons. However, statistically significant differences in comparisons of grade levels showed that fourth graders benefited more, academically, from participation in the school garden program in comparison to other grade levels.
A.E. Pigg, T.M. Waliczek, and J.M. Zajicek
C.D. Klemmer, T.M. Waliczek, and J.M. Zajicek
School gardens show promise as a tool for developing science process skills through real-world investigations. However, little research data exist attesting to their actual effectiveness in enhancing students' science achievement. The purpose of this study was to develop three cognitive test instruments for assessing science achievement gain of third, fourth, and fifth grade students using a garden curriculum. The development of the test instruments occurred in three phases: 1) an initial set of test instruments which served as a prototype for length, scope, and format; 2) an adapted set of test instruments which were piloted; and 3) a final set of test instruments which were used for the assessment of the school gardening curriculum. The final Cronbach's alpha reliability for the final set of test questions was 0.82, indicating an acceptable level of internal consistency. Content validity of the test instruments developed for this study was established based on the science content standards specified in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for each grade level along with the gardening curriculum, as well as the Science Scope and Sequence documents for Temple, Texas Independent School District (ISD). Construct validity was established for the testing instruments by soliciting help from various curriculum experts from the Temple ISD.
Juan C. Díaz-Pérez, Sharad C. Phatak, David Giddings, Denne Bertrand, and Harry A. Mills
calcium nitrate liquid fertilizer; and Green-Tek and Sonoco for plastic film mulches. Mention of trade names in this publication does not imply endorsement by the University of Georgia of products named, nor criticism of similar ones not mentioned.
Juan C. Díaz-Pérez, K. Dean Batal, Darbie Granberry, Denne Bertrand, David Giddings, and Hanu Pappu
; and Green-Tek and Sonoco for plastic film mulches. Mention of trade names in this publication does not imply endorsement by the Univ. of Georgia of products named, nor criticism of similar ones not mentioned.
Juan C. Díaz-Pérez and K. Dean Batal
tomato seeds; United Irrigation and Roberts Irrigation Products Inc., for drip tape; Hydro Agri North America, Inc., for calcium nitrate liquid fertilizer; and Green-Tek and Sonoco for plastic film mulches. Mention of trade names in this publication does
P.E. Danforth, T.M. Waliczek, S.M. Macey, and J.M. Zajicek
curriculum development and integration. For the purpose of helping teachers and students in Texas, the curriculum also aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), the common guidelines for curriculum content and teaching. Content that
Donald Livingstone III, Barbie Freeman, Cecile L. Tondo, Kathleen A. Cariaga, Nora H. Oleas, Alan W. Meerow, Raymond J. Schnell, and David N. Kuhn
represented as error bars for differing volumes ( A ) and SG concentrations ( B ). Creation of standard curves. Samples of salmon sperm DNA ranging from 0 ng·μL −1 to 48 ng·μL −1 were read in triplicate on a Bio-tek FLx 800 microplate
Wei Zhou, Hong Wang, De-Zhu Li, Jun-Bo Yang, and Wei Zhou
(PCR) products were purified using the EZNA Gel Extraction Kit (Omega Bio-Tek, Guangzhou, China). The purified DNA fragments were ligated into pBS-T II vector (Tiangen; Tiangen Biotech Co., Ltd., Beijing, China) and then transformed into DH5α competent
Yuan Huang, Xue-qin Wang, Chun-yan Yang, and Chun-lin Long
round of PCR according to the same procedure as the first round of PCR. The PCR products, after being purified with the E.Z.N.A Gel Extraction Kit (Omega Bio-Tek, Atlanta, GA), were ligated into pMD 18-T vector (Takara, Otsu, Shiga, Japan) according to
Sheng-Xi Liao, Xian-Jie Mi, Ai-Zhong Liu, Kun Li, Zhen-Yin Yang, and Bo Tian
. Enriched fragments were amplified again with adaptor-specific primers. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were purified using an EZNA Gel Extraction Kit (Omega Bio-Tek, USA). Purified DNA fragments were ligated into the pGEM-T vector (Promega, USA