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Cheryl R. Hampson, Harvey A. Quamme, Frank Kappel, and Robert T. Brownlee

The effect of increasing planting density at constant rectangularity on the fruit yield, fruit size, and fruit color of apple [Malus ×sylvestris (L) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] in three training systems (slender spindle, tall spindle, and Geneva Y trellis) was assessed for 10 years. Five tree densities (from 1125 to 3226 trees/ha) and two cultivars (Royal Gala and Summerland McIntosh) were tested in a fully guarded split-split plot design. Density was the most influential factor. As tree density increased, per-tree yield decreased, but yield per unit area increased. The relation between cumulative yield per ha and tree density was linear at the outset of the trial, but soon became curvilinear, as incremental yield diminished with increasing tree density. The chief advantage of high density planting was a large increase in early fruit yield. In later years, reductions in cumulative yield efficiency, and in fruit color for `Summerland McIntosh', began to appear at the highest density. Training system had no influence on productivity for the first 5 years. During the second half of the trial, fruit yield per tree was greater for the Y trellis than for either spindle form at lower densities but not at higher densities. The slender and tall spindles were similar in nearly all aspects of performance, including yield. `Summerland McIntosh' yielded almost 40% less than `Royal Gala' and seemed more sensitive to the adverse effects of high tree density on fruit color.

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Cheryl R. Hampson, Harvey A. Quamme, Frank Kappel, and Robert T. Brownlee

The effect of increasing planting density at constant rectangularity on the vegetative growth and light interception of apple [Malus ×sylvestris (L) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees in three training systems (slender spindle, tall spindle, and Geneva Y trellis) was assessed for 10 years. Five tree densities (from 1125 to 3226 trees/ha) and two cultivars (Royal Gala and Summerland McIntosh) were tested in a fully guarded split-split plot design. Planting density was the most influential factor. As tree density increased, tree size decreased, and leaf area index and light interception increased. A planting density between 1800 and 2200 trees/ha (depending on training system) was needed to achieve at least 50% light interception under the conditions of this trial. Training system altered tree height and canopy diameter, but not total scion weight. Training system began to influence light interception in the sixth leaf, when the Y trellis system intercepted more light than either spindle form. Trees trained to the Y trellis tended to have more spurs and a lower proportion of total leaf area in shoot leaves than the other two systems. The slender and tall spindles were similar in most aspects of performance. Tall spindles did not intercept more light than slender spindles. `Royal Gala' and `Summerland McIntosh' trees intercepted about the same amount of light. `Royal Gala' had greater spur leaf area per tree than `Summerland McIntosh', but the cultivars were similar in shoot leaf area per tree and spur density.

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Raymond L. Granger, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, and Yvon Groleau

In 1988 a randomized complete block design with five blocks was used to evaluate the performance of four cultivars (`Empire', `Cortland', `Summerland McIntosh' and `Lobo') grafted on four rootstocks {Budagovsky(Bud.)9, Malling(M.)7,Ottawa(O.)3 and Malling Merton(M.M.)111}. The sixteen cultivar-rootstocks combinations were planted randomly at 2.5m apart in the row. The distance between the rows was 5m. The trees have been trickle irrigated every year and came into bearing in 1990. On the basis of cumulative yield efficiency the combination `Lobo'/O.3 was significantly superior to all others. The second best performer was `Empire'/O.3 followed by `Lobo'/Bud9. `Empire'MM.111, `Summerland McIntosh'/M.M.111, `Cortland'/M.M.111, `Summerland McIntosh'/M.7 and `Empire'/M.7 had the least cumulative yield efficiency. Generally the cultivar `Lobo' was superior to others and O.3 was the best rootstock followed by Bud.9, M.7 and M.M.111.

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John Warner

`Sturdeespur Delicious', `MacSpur`, `Summerland McIntosh', `Idared', and `Empire' apple trees (Malus domestics Borkh.) planted in 1986 on various size-controlling rootstock were used to determine the effect of rootstock on primary scaffold branch crotch angle. There were differences in crotch angle depending on rootstock. Rootstock effects were more pronounced with the upright growing `Sturdeespur Delicious' than with `Idared' and `Empire', which have a spreading growth habit. Ottawa 8 rootstock had a tendency to produce primary branches with wider crotch angles than other semidwarf to standard rootstock.

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Gerry Neilsen, Peter Parchomchuk, Michael Meheriuk, and Denise Neilsen

Various schedules of 40 g N and 17.5 g P/tree per year were applied with irrigation water (fertigation) to `Summerland McIntosh' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees on M.9 rootstock commencing the year of planting. Leaf K concentrations averaged 0.82% dry mass, indicating deficiency, by the third growing season. This coincided with extractable soil K concentrations of 50-60 μg·g-1 soil in a narrow volume of the coarse-textured soil located within 0.3 m of the emitters. The decline in leaf K concentration was reversed and fruit K concentration increased by additions of K at 15-30 g/tree applied either as granular KCl directly beneath the emitters in spring or as KCl applied as a fertigant in the irrigation water. K-fertilization increased fruit red color, size, and titratable acidity only when leaf K concentration was <1%. Fruit Ca concentration and incidence of bitter pit or coreflush were unaffected by K application. NPK-fertigation commencing upon tree establishment is recommended for high-density apple orchards planted on similar coarse-textured soils.

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John M. DeLong, Robert K. Prange, and Peter A. Harrison

`Redcort Cortland' and `Redmax' and `Summerland McIntosh' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) were treated with 900 nL·L-1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 24 hours at 20 °C before storage and were kept at 3 °C in either a controlled atmosphere (CA) of 2 kPa O2 and <2.5 kPa CO2 or in an air (RA) environment for up to 9 months. After 4.5 months, half of the fruit were treated with a second 900 nL·L-1 1-MCP application in air at 3 °C for 24 hours and then returned to RA or CA storage. At harvest and following removal at 3, 6, and 9 months and a 7-day shelf life at 20 °C, fruit firmness, titratable acidity (TA) and soluble solids content (SSC) were measured, while internal ethylene concentrations (IEC) in the apple core were quantified after 1 day at 20 °C. Upon storage removal and following a 21-day shelf life at 20 °C, disorder incidence was evaluated. 1-MCP-treated apples, particularly those held in CA-storage, were more firm and had lower IEC than untreated fruit. Higher TA levels were maintained with 1-MCP in all three strains from both storages, while SSC was not affected. Following the 6- and/or 9-month removals, 1-MCP suppressed superficial scald development in all strains and reduced core browning and senescent breakdown in RA-stored `Redmax' and `Summerland' and senescent breakdown in RA-stored `Redcort'. 1-MCP generally maintained the quality of `Cortland' and `McIntosh' fruit held in CA and RA environments (particularly the former) to a higher degree than untreated apples over the 9-month storage period. A second midstorage application of 1-MCP at 3 °C did not improve poststorage fruit quality above a single, prestorage treatment.

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John M. DeLong, Robert K. Prange, Peter A. Harrison, R. Andrew Schofield, and Jennifer R. DeEll

A final harvest window (FHW), expressed as Streif Index coefficients [firmness/(percentage soluble solids concentration × starch index)], was developed for identifying maximum fruit quality for strains of `McIntosh', `Cortland', and `Jonagold' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) following 8 months of controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage. The Streif Index was calculated during nine preharvest (twice per week) intervals and four weekly harvests over three seasons. The relationship between Streif Index (dependent variable) and day of year (independent variable) of the preharvest and harvest samples was then derived by negative first-order linear regression equations that had parameter estimate (b1) probability values ≤0.0001 for all of the strains. Apples from the four harvest periods were stored in standard CA storage for 8 months and then subjected to a 7-day shelf-life test at 0 °C followed by 5 days at 20 °C. Poststorage quality data were categorized and combined to produce an overall fruit quality rating scale. For each strain, the final harvest (i.e., day of year) was identified as that which directly preceded at least a 10% drop in the poststorage fruit quality rating compared with the first harvest rating. The FHW, expressed as Streif Index coefficients via the regression of Streif Index (Y) on day of year (X), was then calculated as the 3-year final harvest mean with the upper and lower window limits being determined by the standard deviation of the mean. The lower to upper FHW boundaries ranged from 4.18 to 5.34, 4.12 to 5.46, 4.51 to 5.68, 5.23 to 5.99, and 1.38 to 2.34 for Redmax, Marshall and Summerland `McIntosh', Redcort `Cortland' and Wilmuta `Jonagold', respectively. The practical utility of the Streif Index method lies in the ease with which apple fruit maturity at harvest can be evaluated for its suitability for long-term CA storage.

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Robert K. Prange, John M. DeLong, Peter A. Harrison, Jerry C. Leyte, and Scott D. McLean

A new chlorophyll fluorescence (F) sensor system called FIRM (fluorescence interactive response monitor) was developed that measures F at low irradiance. This system can produce a theoretical estimate of Fo at zero irradiance for which we have coined a new fluorescence term, Fα. The ability of Fα to detect fruit and vegetable low-O2 stress was tested in short-term (4-day) studies on chlorophyll-containing fruit [apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.), pear (Pyrus communis L.), banana (Musa ×paradisiaca L.), kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa C.S. Liang & A.R. Ferguson), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and avocado (Persea americana Mill.)] and vegetables (cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata Group), green pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Grossum Group), iceberg and romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)). In all of these fruit and vegetables, Fα was able to indicate the presence of low-O2 stress. As the O2 concentration dropped below threshold values of 0 to 1.4 kPa, depending on the product, the Fα value immediately and dramatically increased. At the end of the short-term study, O2 was increased above the threshold level, whereupon Fα returned to approximately prestressed values. A 9-month study was undertaken with `Summerland McIntosh' apple fruit to determine if storing the fruit at 0.9 kPa O2, the estimated low O2 threshold value determined from Fα, would benefit or damage fruit quality, compared with threshold + 0.3 kPa (1.2 kPa O2) and the lowest recommended CA (1.5 kPa O2). After 9 months, the threshold treatment (0.9 kPa) had the highest firmness, lowest concentration of fermentation volatiles (ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) and lowest total disorders. Sensory rating for off-flavor, flavor and preference indicated no discernible differences among the three treatments.

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Jennifer R. DeEll, Jennifer T. Ayres, and Dennis P. Murr

of core browning and superficial scald in ‘Summerland McIntosh’ stored for 6 or 9 months in air at 3 °C plus 21 d at 20 °C. However, under these same conditions, 1-MCP reduced the incidence of core browning in ‘Redmax McIntosh’ after 6 months, but not

Open access

Thomas M. Kon, Melanie A. Schupp, Hans E. Winzeler, and James R. Schupp

carpel ( Pratt, 1988 ; 10–20 ovules per blossom). Sheffield et al. (2005) observed perfect syncarpy ‘Summerland McIntosh’, because stylar transmitting tissue was fused above the ovaries, and pollen tubes from any style could enter any locule. For