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Masahiro Toyoda, Yuko Yokota, Marni Barnes, and Midori Kaneko

males and scores between 20 and 39 in females), increased from 18 (28.6%) to 23 (36.5%) after intervention. Table 1. Intragroup comparison of the trait anxiety scores of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI ( Spielberger et al., 1983 )] before

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Seong-Hyun Park and Richard H. Mattson

collected included the length of hospitalization, analgesics used for postoperative pain control, vital signs, ratings of pain intensity, pain distress, anxiety and fatigue (PPAF), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-1 (STAI-Y1), the Environmental

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Ahmad Hassan, Chen Qibing, Jiang Tao, Lv Bing-Yang, Li Nian, Shu Li, Li Yu Tng, Jun Zhuo Li, Shang Guan Ziyue, and Muhammad Sohaib Tahir

. Taylor & Francis, Abingdon, UK Hidano, N. Fukuhara, M. Iwawaki, M. Soga, S. Spielberger, C.D. 2000 State-trait anxiety inventory-form JYZ. Japan UNI Agency, Tokyo, Japan Ho, R.C. Zhang, M.W.B. Tsang, T.Y. Toh, A.H. Pan, F. Lu, Y. Cheng, C. Yip, P.S. Lam

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Yen-Cheng Chiang and Pei-Yi Weng

groups required to perform identical activities for the same duration. The patients were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and State–Trait Anxiety Inventory at pretest and posttest. The researchers concluded

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Seong-Hyun Park and Richard H. Mattson

each patient. This included length of hospitalization, analgesics used for postoperative pain control, vital signs, ratings of pain intensity, pain distress, anxiety and fatigue (PPAF), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y-1 (STAI-Y1), Environmental