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M.B. Fiely and T.E. Morelock

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) varies in tolerance to saturated soil conditions. Plant vigor was assessed for plants flooded in autoclaved and nonautoclaved field soil. Decline of vigor was more rapid for plants flooded in nonautoclaved field soil, indicating that flooding tolerance may be influenced by soil borne pathogens.

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M.B. Fiely and T.E. Morelock

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) varies in tolerance to saturated soil conditions. Plant vigor was assessed for plants flooded in autoclaved and nonautoclaved field soil. Decline of vigor was more rapid for plants flooded in nonautoclaved field soil, indicating that flooding tolerance may be influenced by soil borne pathogens.

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Jessica Chitwood, Ainong Shi, Michael Evans, Curt Rom, Edward E. Gbur Jr., Dennis Motes, Pengyin Chen, and David Hensley

The economic value of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) continues to grow in the United States as well as globally due to its high nutritive content. Spinach production has been valued over $250 million in the United States in 2014 ( USDA, 2015

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Diana M. Cheng, Gad G. Yousef, and Mary Ann Lila

, phytosterols, could help to elucidate a network of potential regulatory points of de novo phytoecdysteroid biosynthesis. Materials and Methods Plant material. Fifteen spinach ( Spinacia oleracea ) accessions ( Table 1 ) were obtained through the U.S. Department

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Ambani R. Mudau, Puffy Soundy, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

Recently, the demand for baby spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) far exceeds the supply because of its health attributes and ease to use as leafy vegetable ( Cocetta et al., 2014 ). Baby spinach is grown all year round in temperate regions ( Rodríguez

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Ambani R. Mudau, Puffy Soundy, Hintsa T. Araya, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

requirement of baby spinach using MAP. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of CA on postharvest quality and shelf life of baby spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.). Materials and Methods Experimental site. The trial was carried out at the

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Changhoo Chun, Ayumi Watanabe, Toyoki Kozai, Hyeon-Hye Kim, and Junya Fuse

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Dimple) was chosen to determine whether bolting (i.e., elongation of flower stalks) could be controlled by manipulating the photoperiod during transplant production in a closed system using artificial light. Plants grown under various photoperiods during transplant production were transferred and cultured under natural short photoperiods and artificial long photoperiods. Vegetative growth at transplanting tended to be greater with the longer photoperiod because of the increased integrated photosynthetic photon flux. Bolting initiation reacted qualitatively to a long photoperiod, and the critical photoperiod for bolting initiation was longer than 13 h and shorter than 15 h. The plants grown under a longer photoperiod during transplant production had longer flower stalks at harvest. The long photoperiod and/or high temperature after transplanting therefore promoted flower stalk elongation. Growing plants under a photoperiod that was shorter than the critical photoperiod during transplant production reduced elongation of the flower stalks, thus there was no loss of market value even though the plants were cultured under a long photoperiod and high temperature for 2 weeks after transplanting.

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Hyeon-Hye Kim, Changhoo Chun, Toyoki Kozai, and Junya Fuse

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was chosen to demonstrate that value-added transplant can be relatively easily produced under artificial light in a closed system. Transplant production under artificial light was divided into three periods, and the photoperiod during each period was varied. It was found that the rate of floral development could be controlled by photoperiod treatments, although floral initiation itself could not be manipulated. Short photoperiod treatments retarded floral development and stem elongation. This occurred even when the transplants were transferred for transplanting to natural conditions with long days and high temperatures. In conclusion, by providing the short photoperiod during the transplant production process, marketable plants with negligible bolting can be produced under natural long-day conditions. Moreover, the production cost per transplant in summer could be reduced by using a combination of natural and artificial lighting during the transplant production process. These results open the possibility to produce value-added transplants of different species under artificial lighting conditions and control their floral development and/or stem elongation for a timely and profitable harvest.

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D. Mark Hodges, Wendy V. Wismer, and Charles F. Forney

The responses of certain antioxidants in detached leaves of two cultivars of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) differing in their senescence rates were assessed during storage in order to explore the significance of these antioxidants in senescence regulation and dynamics. To identify spinach cultivars differing in their senescence rates, 10 cultivars were grown in field plots, harvested at maturity, and their leaves detached and stored at 10 °C in the dark. At the point of harvest (d 0) and on d 5, 8, 12, and 15, samples were analyzed for lipid peroxidation (MDA), chlorophyll loss, and electrolyte leakage. The cultivars were also grown in laboratory growth chambers to corroborate field results. Two cultivars that were consistently identified as having relatively high (Spokane F1) and low (BJ 412 Sponsor) senescence rates were grown in growth chambers for 45 d, harvested at maturity, and their leaves detached and stored as above. At the point of harvest (d 0) and on d 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20, samples were analyzed for (i) activities of ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX; EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), and (ii) concentrations of MDA, total ascorbate, reduced ascorbate (AsA), oxidized ascorbate (DAsA), total glutathione, reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Although MDA accumulated in leaves of both cultivars concomitant with time after detachment, levels became significantly higher in Spokane. Activities of ASPX declined in Spokane leaves following detachment but activities of SOD and levels of glutathione increased in this cultivar. GSH/GSSG increased in `Sponsor', but dramatically more so in `Spokane'. Ascorbate concentrations did not diminish in leaves of `Spokane' to the degree that they did in `Sponsor' tissue. DAsA/AsA values did not decrease in `Spokane' leaves following detachment, though they did in those of `Sponsor'. It is argued that declining activities of ASPX and levels of ascorbate and increasing activities of SOD manifested in accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in Spokane, leading to a greater potential for lipid peroxidation in this variety than for Sponsor. SOD activities and glutathione levels may have increased as a result of elevated oxidative stress in Spokane. Increased hydrogen peroxide accumulation in `Spokane' relative to `Sponsor' may have contributed to an increased rate of senescence in the leaves of this cultivar.

Open access

Daniel P. Gillespie, Gio Papio, and Chieri Kubota

Increased demand for prewashed, prepackaged baby leaves of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea ) over the past decade has led to 51% increase in U.S. spinach production from 2012 to 2017 [ Correll et al., 2011 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture National