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Steven B. Polter, Douglas Doohan, and Joseph C. Scheerens

Nemours and Company, Agricultural Products, Wilmington, Del., for gift of Sinbar®.

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Steven B. Polter, Douglas Doohan, and Joseph C. Scheerens

Terbacil at 0, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 oz/acre (0, 0.06, 0.11, 0.22, and 0.45 kg·ha-1) a.i. was applied immediately after planting, at the thee-leaf stage and at the six-leaf stage to greenhouse grown strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars Jewel, Mira, and Allstar. Strawberry was most tolerant of terbacil when the herbicide was applied before leaf emergence. `Mira' was more tolerant of terbacil than was `Jewel'. `Jewel' and `Allstar' exhibited similar levels of tolerance. In a second experiment terbacil at 4.8 oz/acre (0.34 kg·ha-1) was applied to the soil, to the foliage, and to the foliage followed by a water rinse. Injury was greatest when terbacil was applied directly to the strawberry foliage rather than to the soil, but was minimal when foliage was rinsed after application. In a final experiment terbacil at 4.8 oz/acre was applied to greenhouse-grown `Jewel' strawberries at the thee-leaf stage followed by a water rinse 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 hours after application. Rinsing the foliage of strawberry plants after application significantly reduced leaf injury. Delaying the rinse up to 4 hours did not lead to increased injury. Over all, the results from our study indicate the potential for using terbacil as an effective herbicide on newly established strawberries, especially if the compound is rinsed from leaves (if present) after treatment.

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C.A. Weber

A partial diallel design was used to investigate the inheritance of tolerance to terbacil herbicide in cultivated strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. Two tolerant cultivars, `Honeoye' and `Earliglow', two moderately tolerant cultivars, `Lester' and `Allstar', and two susceptible cultivars, `Red Chief' and `Guardian' were used as parents to create populations that segregated for tolerance to the herbicide. Tolerance rankings of the populations closely coincided with expected rankings based on the published tolerance levels of parental cultivars. `Honeoye' and `Earliglow' derived populations had the highest average tolerance ratings, while `Guardian' derived populations had the lowest tolerance ratings. Heritability was estimated at h2 = 0.50, indicating that significant progress in increasing the tolerance of new cultivars to terbacil can be achieved through traditional recurrent selection procedures. General and specific combining abilities suggest that the tolerant cultivars in this study may be fixed in their tolerance and that increased mean tolerance will be most apparent in progenies combining tolerant and susceptible cultivars. As such, a broader pool of germplasm may be needed to develop cultivars that are more tolerant than those in this study. Chemical names: terbacil (3-tert-butyl-5-chloro-6-methyluracil)

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Todd L. Mervosh and James A. LaMondia

The effects of terbacil herbicide on strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. `Honeoye') yield and black root rot disease were determined in field plots at two locations in Connecticut over 4 years. Terbacil treatments at up to four times the maximum label dosage caused some temporary foliar chlorosis but did not affect the health of structural or perennial roots and associated feeder roots. Development of secondary root growth (perennial roots) was not influenced by terbacil. Terbacil had no effect on the quantity of lesion nematodes [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filip & Schur. Stek.] extracted or the amount of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae Husain and McKeen isolated from strawberry roots. At both locations, R. fragariae was common on plant roots by the fourth year. Terbacil treatments did not affect strawberry yields in terms of number or weight of ripe berries per plot. Our results indicate that terbacil does not contribute to black root rot or decreased yields in `Honeoye' strawberry. Chemical name used: 5-chloro-3-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-methyl-2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione (terbacil).

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Katherine B. Wing and Marvin P. Pritts

Black root rot is a devastating, poorly understood disease complex affecting strawberries in temperate regions. The objective of the study was to conduct a comprehensive field survey of environmental, cultural, and pathological factors contributing to black root rot disease of strawberries as it occurs in New York. In Spring 1992, growers were visited to collect information on cultural practices, field measurements, and plant and soil samples from healthy and infected fields. Plants were scored for root health and measurements were made for nematode densities, soil compaction, soil texture, soil nutrients, and plant dry weights. Variables significantly correlated with poor root health were soil compaction, fine soil texture, absence of raised beds, high rates of terbacil (Sinbar) use, advanced age of planting, and many cumulative years of strawberry culture.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

middle of each bed, 5 to 6 cm deep. The weed control during the first and the second years was conducted with Sinbar (Terbacil 80% WP) (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) at 2 kg·ha −1 . Spearmint plants were hand-transplanted in two rows on each bed, at 30 cm

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Vasile Cerven, Charles L. Cantrell, Wayne M. Ebelhar, and Thomas Horgan

cultivar that has been used for over 100 years for peppermint oil production in the United States. Peppermint transplants were planted the first week of May at Verona and Stoneville. Before planting, the sites were treated with herbicide Sinbar (80

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containers remained larger than plants from smaller containers. IRRIGATION FOLLOWING TERBACIL SPRAYING PROTECTS STRAWBERRY PLANTS The Sinbar (terbacil) product label permits application of the herbicide immediately after strawberry planting and again late in

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

12 cm tall) were transplanted at in-row and between-row spacing of 30 cm in an offset pattern. Transplanting was done in the spring of 2011; this study was conducted in 2012 on a 2-year well-established spearmint plantation. Sinbar (Terbacil 80% WP

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Charles L. Cantrell, Tess Astatkie, and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

high, 80 cm across) using a press-pan-type bed shaper machine. The machine also placed a drip-tape irrigation tube at 5 to 6 cm below the soil surface along the center of each bed. For weed control, Sinbar (Terbacil 80% WP) at 2 kg·ha −1 was applied on