Marasmius oreades, a causal agent of fairy rings, is one of the most important pathogens of turfgrass in the Great Plains region of North America. Following in vitro and greenhouse screening of surfactants and fungicides, two organosilicone surfactants, Silwet L-77 and Sylgard, together with the fungicide chlorothalonil, were evaluated in the field. Treatments were applied to healthy and infested turfgrass (Poa pratensis L., Festuca rubra L.) in either 1992, 1993, or in both years. Plots were sampled for grass production, canopy cover, mushroom production, grass chlorophyll content, soil water content, and phytotoxicity. Typically, there were no significant fungicide effects, fungicide by surfactant interactions or differences between Silwet L-77 and Sylgard. Relative to the water control, surfactants caused an approximate 3-fold increase in grass productivity on infested plots in the year of application. However, the difference in canopy cover between organosilicone-treated and control plots tended to be much less. Applying the surfactants to diseased plots in two successive years decreased the canopy cover but had no significant effect on grass production. Chlorophyll content tended to decrease in response to surfactants regardless of whether the turf was infested or healthy. Surfactants almost completely eliminated mushroom production and greatly reduced the occurrence of mycelium. Both organosilicones increased soil water content in infested areas; differences were detectable 2 years after application. Acute phytotoxicity from the surfactants was detected in infested but not in healthy plots. There was no direct evidence of chronic phytotoxicity. Organosilicone surfactants appear to have considerable potential for the management of fairy rings. Chemical names used: oxyalkylenemethylsiloxane (Silwet L-77); 2-(3-hydroxypropyl)-heptamethyltrisiloxane (Sylgard); tetrachloroisopthalonitrile (chlorothalonil).
P.V. Blenis, L.B. Nadeau, N.R. Knowles, and G. Logue
Shiow Y. Wang and Dean Der-Syh Tzeng
We thank Kelly Y. Chang for technical assistance; Osi Specialties, Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., for the sample of Silwet L-77. Use of a company or product name by the USDA does not imply approval or recommendation of the product to the exclusion of others
Robert A. Saftner, J. George Buta, William S. Conway, and Carl E. Sams
ICI Surfactants, Wilmington, Del., for samples of Atlox 8916TF, Brij 93 and 98 and Renex 30 and 36; OSi Specialties, Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., for samples of Silwet L-77 and L-7604; Union Carbide Corp., Danbury, Conn., for samples of Tergitol 15-S-3
Vladimir Orbović, Diann Achor, and James P. Syvertsen
Lawn, NJ) was added to Kocide at a concentration of 1.65% (w/v). The concentration of urea was equivalent to 7.74 kg·ha −1 . The organosilicone surfactant and penetrant Silwet L-77, a polyalkene-oxide copolymer (Loveland Industries, Greenley, CO), was
Daniel K. MacKinnon, Dale Shaner, Scott Nissen, and Phil Westra
, or Silwet L-77 protected the plants from ethephon and the leaf angles were not significantly different from untreated plants ( Table 3 ). In the second group of surfactants, only the Dyne-Amic/1-MCP spray protected the plants from ethephon (plants
Bruce W. Wood, W. Louis Tedders, and James Taylor
Aphids cause major annual economic losses to the U.S. pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] industry and are becoming harder to control with standard pesticides. An evaluation of efforts by certain growers to suppress aphid populations using air-blast sprays of 0.05% Silwet L-77, a non-ionic super-wetting organosilicone surfactant, indicated that: 1) reductions in blackmargined aphid [Monellia caryella (Fitch)] levels were mostly attributable to the air-blast spray effect rather than to the Silwet L-77 component; 2) a 0.05% solution of Silwet L-77 reduced net photosynthesis (A) of foliage by 5% for at least 14 days post-treatment; and 3) the efficacy of 0.05% Silwet L-77 sprays is not substantially increased by doubling the volume of spray per tree (1868 L·ha-1). However, higher Silwet L-77 concentrations were highly effective in killing aphids, although there was little or no residual activity. A response curve indicated that air-blast sprays of orchard trees with 0.30% (v/v) Silwet L-77 (at 934 L·ha-1) are capable of reducing yellow pecan aphid (Monelliopsis pecanis Bissell) populations by at least 84% while only reducing A by ≤10%. Chemical names used: silicone-polyether copolymer (Silwet L-77).
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fruit quality, ethylene evolution, and storage in apple `Tsugaru' as influenced by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and several surfactants. When treated with AVG + Silwet L-77, there was little significant difference in soluble solids and acidity as compared with control, but dichlorprop treatment was significantly increased in soluble solids and decreased in acidity. Color development was decreased when treated with AVG + Silwet L-77. AVG + Silwet L-77 treatment decreased ethylene evolution, and increased storage. It can be concluded that fruit can be left on trees longer and still maintain storability, and more fruit is able to go to fresh market from long-term storage, which increases the marketability of apple.
Vladimir Orbovic, John L. Jifon, and James P. Syvertsen
Although urea can be an effective adjuvant to foliar sprays, we examined effects of additional surfactants on urea penetration through leaf cuticles along with the effect of urea with and without surfactants on net gas exchange of leaves of `Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) trees budded to Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis L. Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) rootstock. Various combinations of urea, a nonionic surfactant (X-77), and an organosilicone surfactant (L-77), were applied to grapefruit leaves and also to isolated adaxial cuticles. When compared to X-77, L-77 exhibited superior surfactant features with smaller contact angles of droplets deposited on a teflon slide. Both L-77 and X-77 initially increased penetration rate of urea through cuticles, but the effect of X-77 was sustained for a longer period of time. The total amount of urea which penetrated within a 4-day period, however, was similar after addition of either surfactant. Solutions of either urea, urea + L-77, urea + X-77, or L-77 alone decreased net assimilation of CO2 (ACO2) for 4 to 24 hours after spraying onto grapefruit leaves. A solution of X-77 alone had no effect on ACO2 over the 4-day period. Although reductions in ACO2 were similar following sprays of urea formulated with two different surfactants, the underlying mechanisms may not have been the same. For the urea + X-77 treatment, X-77 increased the inhibitory effects of urea on ACO2 indirectly by increasing penetration of urea into leaves. For the urea + L-77 formulation, effects of L-77 on ACO2 were 2-fold, direct by inhibiting ACO2 and indirect by increasing urea penetration. One hour after application, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of leaf surfaces treated with X-77 revealed that they were heavily coated with the residue of the surfactant, whereas leaves treated with L-77 looked similar to nontreated leaves with no apparent residues on their surfaces. The amount of X-77 residue on the leaves was lower 24 hours after application than after 1 hour as observed by SEM.
Ed Stover, Scott Ciliento, Monty Myers, Brian Boman, John Jackson Jr., and Max Still
Six trials were conducted to determine whether lower spray volumes or inclusion of different surfactants would permit adequate thinning of mandarin hybrids (Citrus reticulata hybrids) at a much lower cost per hectare. Sprays were applied using a commercial airblast orchard sprayer during physiological drop when fruitlets averaged 8 to 16 mm in diameter. Surfactant was always included at 0.05% v/v. NAA always reduced fruit per tree, increased fruit size, and decreased production of smallest size fruit. However, in only three experiments, contrast of all NAA treatments vs. controls indicated increased production of the largest (80–100 fruit per carton) and most valuable fruit. In four of five experiments, comparison of spray volumes of 600 (only examined in three of four experiments), 1200, or 2300 L·ha–1 demonstrated significant fruit size enhancement from all NAA applications. Most individual NAA treatments resulted in fewer fruit per tree, but there were no statistically significant differences between NAA treatments at different spray volumes. In only one of the four experiments, there was a marked linear relationship between spray volume and fruit per tree, yield, mean fruit size, and production of largest fruit sizes. The effects of surfactants (Activator, a nonionic, Silwet L-77, and LI-700) on NAA thinning were tested in both `Murcott' and `Sunburst'. In comparisons between Silwet L-77 and Activator surfactant, one experiment with `Murcott' showed greater fruit per tree and yield reduction from using Silwet, but with a smaller increase in production of largest fruit sizes, whereas in another `Murcott' experiment, Silwet L-77 reduced numbers of smaller fruit size with no increase in production of larger fruit. Based on these findings, current recommendations for NAA thinning of Fla. mandarins are use of spray volume of ≈1100–1400 L·ha–1 on mature trees with proportionally lower volume on smaller trees. These data appear to support use of a nonionic surfactant rather than other tested surfactants in NAA thinning of Florida mandarins. Because experience with NAA thinning of Florida citrus is limited, it is only recommended where the disadvantages of overcropping are perceived to substantially outweigh the potential losses from overthinning.
R.E. Byers, D.H. Carbaugh, and L.D. Combs
Technical grade prohexadione-calcium (93.2% a.i. P-Ca) applied to `Fuji'/M.9 trees in three applications in deionized water reduced shoot growth by 25%, but the addition of (NH4)2SO4 to P-Ca suppressed shoot growth by 47%. If P-Ca was mixed in well water (high in calcium salts), P-Ca did not suppress shoot growth at all. The commercially formulated prohexadione-calcium [Apogee: 27.5% P-Ca + 56.1% (NH4)2SO4 + 16.4% other proprietary additives] + Regulaid in well water (high calcium) was not as effective (reduced growth by 30%) as when additional (NH4)2SO4 was added (reduced growth by 53%), and if CaCl2 (used to control corking) was tank mixed with Apogee + Regulaid, the Ca++ interfered with the growth suppression of P-Ca. If (NH4)2SO4 was added at the same rate as CaCl2 (w/w), the Apogee growth suppression was completely restored (reduced growth by 50%). Choice (a commercial water conditioner that has (NH4)2SO4 in the formulation, among other ingredients) + Li-700, or (NH4)2SO4 + Silwet L-77, or (NH4)2SO4 + Silwet L-77 + Oil were among the most effective adjuvant combinations with Apogee. The addition of ethephon at 270 mg·L-1 improved the growth suppression of Apogee + (NH4)2SO4 + Regulaid. Solubor compromised the effectiveness of Apogee + Regulaid. Adjusting the pH of the Apogee + (NH4)2SO4+ Regulaid spray to either pH = 4 or pH = 9 did not affect efficacy. The combination of Apogee + (NH4)2SO4 + Regulaid caused increased fruit cracking of `Empire' fruit as compared to the control (7%), presumably due to increased absorption of P-Ca. Chemical names used: Prohexadione-calcium (P-Ca, 3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-3cyclohexenecarboxylate) formulated as BAS-125 (10% P-Ca); Apogee (27.5% P-Ca), or Technical 93.5% P-Ca); Regulaid (polyoxyethylenepolypropoxy-propanol, alkyl 2-ethoxethanol, and dihydroxy propane); Silwet L-77 (polyalkyleneoxide modified heptametyltrisiloxane, silicon surfactant), LI-700 (80%, phosphatidylcholine, methylacetic acid and alkyl polyoxyethylene ether); Superior Oil (Drexel Damoil 70-second delayed dormant spray oil); ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid); Solubor (20.5%, Boron equivalent); captan (N-Trichloromethylthio-4-cyclohenene-1,2-dicarboximide).