lengths and the S -genotypes of a set of Turkish apricot cultivars. In addition, the S -genotyping method was extended to the SFB gene to detect the non-functional S C -haplotype and hence reliably identify SC apricot cultivars. The information was
Júlia Halász, Andrzej Pedryc, Sezai Ercisli, Kadir Ugurtan Yilmaz and Attila Hegedűs
Júlia Halász, Attila Hegedűs, Zoltán Szabó, József Nyéki and Andrzej Pedryc
first S -genotype ( S a S b ) of a japanese plum cultivar (‘Sordum’) was described by Yamane et al. (1999) . Later, Beppu et al. (2002 , 2003) demonstrated the diversity of S -haplotypes in japanese plum by molecular cloning of genomic DNAs
H. Yaegaki, T. Shimada, H. Hayaman, T. Haji and M. Yamaguchi
Japanese apricot (Prunus mume) originated in south-eastern China and is one of the major fruit trees in Japan. The major cultivars of Japanese apricot are self-incompatible. Self-incompatibility of Japanese apricot is gametophytic, the same as other Prunus species. Since S-genotype of every cultivar remained unclear until now, we examined molecular markers to determine S-genotype which was explored based on the information about S-RNase of other Prunus spiecies. Total DNA isolated from six cultivars was PCR-amplified by oligonucleotide primers designed from conserved region of Prunus S-RNase Every six cultivars yielded two amplified bands. In total, seven kind of polymorphism in molecular size were determined among those six cultivar, controlled pollination tests were carried out among cultivars that showed same band pattern, and these cross-combinations indicated cross-incompatibility. So, we were made clear that S-genotype of Japanese apricot could effectively and easily be determined by PCR method, and that there exists seven S-gene at least.
Javier Sanzol and Timothy P. Robbins
diploid plants can be predicted in most cases solely on the basis of their S-genotypes. S-genotyping is therefore a priority of cultivar characterization in many fruit species because this provides growers and breeders with valuable information to avoid
Wim Broothaerts, Ilse Van Nerum and Johan Keulemans
Apple cultivars display a self-incompatibility system that restricts self-fertilization and fertilization between cultivars bearing identical S-alleles. There has been considerable progress in identification of S-alleles in apple in recent years and methods are now available for the accurate S-genotyping of cultivars. Following a recently revised numerical identification system for apple S-alleles, we present the first extensive compilation of apple cultivars with their S-genotypes. This list contains data from our own investigations using S-allele-specific PCR methodology, including a number of new data, as well as published data from various other sources. Eighteen different S-alleles are discriminated, which allowed the determination of the S-genotypes for 150 diploid or triploid European, American, and Japanese cultivars. Many of these cultivars are cultivated worldwide for their fruit. Also included are a number of old, obsolete cultivars and a few nondomestic genotypes. We observed a wide variation in the frequency of S-alleles in the apple germplasm. Three S-alleles (S2, S3, and S9) are very common in the cultivars evaluated, presumably as a result of the widespread use of the same breeding parents, and seven alleles are very rare (S4, S6, S8, S16, S22, S23, S26).
Keiko Sekido, Yusaku Hayashi, Kunio Yamada, Katsuhiro Shiratake, Shogo Matsumoto, Tsutomu Maejima and Hiromitsu Komatsu
S x ) and maternal parents (‘Jonathan’ previously identified by us as S 7 S 9 ), respectively. Expected S genotypes of progenies from ‘Pink Pearl’ ( S 3 S x ) × ‘JPP 35’ ( S 3 S 7 ) are either S 3 S 7 or S 7 S x , because the S 3 in ‘JPP 35
Jung Hyun Kwon, Ji Hae Jun, Eun Young Nam, Kyeong Ho Chung, Ik Koo Yoon, Seok Kyu Yun and Sung Jong Kim
carried out at any time of the year, not relying on flower availability. Also, it can be easily applied to determine S genotypes in new plum cultivars. ‘Soldam’ was the first S -genotyped Asian plum cultivar ( Yamane et al., 1999 ), and the S
Hitomi Umemura, Katsuhiro Shiratake, Shogo Matsumoto, Tsutomu Maejima and Hiromitsu Komatsu
-investigated the flesh color and S -genotypes of the progenies, including some additional progenies at full maturity. As shown in Table 1 , all 75 (100%) and 60 of 64 (94%) progenies having S 3 from ‘Shinano Sweet’ ( S 1 S 7 ) × ‘JPP 35’ ( S 3 S 7 ) and ‘Orin
Kenji Sakurai, Susan K. Brown and Norman Weeden
The S-alleles of 55 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars and selections were determined using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification system for 11 different S-alleles (S2, S3, S4, S5, S7, S9, S24, S26, S27, Sd, Sf). Four cultivars had S-alleles different than those predicted by their parentage. Three commercial cultivars of unknown pedigrees had S-genotypes that suggested `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious' were the parents. S-genotyping results supported controlled pollination test results. The genotypes of the five triploid cultivars examined were consistent with the unreduced gamete being contributed by the female parent. Although a large number of S-genotypes is available in apple, artificial selection or repeated use of the same cultivars as parents appears to have significantly restricted the number of compatibility groups associated with commercial clones. In controlled reciprocal crosses between two cultivars of known S-genotypes, the segregation of S-genotypes and S-alleles was 1:1:1:1, the ratio expected for random pairing of alleles.
Santiago Vilanova, Carlos Romero, Gerardo Llácer, María Luisa Badenes and Lorenzo Burgos
This report shows the PCR-based identification of the eight known self-(in)compatibility alleles (S 1 to S 7 and S c) of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Two sets of consensus primers, designed from P. armeniaca S-RNase genomic sequences and sweet cherry (P. avium L.) S-RNase-cDNAs, were used to amplify fragments containing the first and the second S-RNase intron, respectively. When the results obtained from the two PCRs were combined, all S-alleles could be distinguished. The identity of the amplified S-alleles was verified by sequencing the first intron and 135 base pairs (bp) of the second exon. The deduced amino acid sequences of these fragments showed the presence of the C1 and C2 Prunus L. S-RNase conserved regions. These results allowed us to confirm S-genotypes previously assigned by stylar ribonuclease analyses and to propose one self-(in)compatibility group (I) and one universal donor group (O) containing unique S-genotypes and self-compatible cultivars (SC). This PCR-based typing system also facilitates the identification of the S c-allele and might be a very useful tool for predicting self-compatibility in apricot breeding progenies.