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Eric T. Wolske, Bruce E. Branham, and Kevin J. Wolz

leaf area and decreasing leaf thickness. As the level of shading increased, plant yield decreased, and the authors concluded that shade levels should be no more than 60% for blueberries to remain economically viable. Black currants ( Ribes nigrum ) have

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

Polares is a new blackcurrant ( Ribes nigrum L.) cultivar released from the Ribes breeding program conducted for many years at the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture (now the Research Institute of Horticulture) in Skierniewice

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

‘Tihope’ is a new disease-resistant blackcurrant ( Ribes nigrum L.) cultivar released from the Ribes breeding program conducted at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice, Poland. ‘Tihope’ produces large, attractive, and good

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Stanisław Pluta and Edward Żurawicz

The blackcurrant ( Ribes nigrum L.) is an important small fruit crop cultivated commercially in moderate-temperature regions encompassing many countries of the world ( Brennan, 2008 ; Kampuss and Strautina, 2004 ). The blackcurrant fruits have

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Doina Clapa, Alexandru Fira, and Nirmal Joshee

method was tested for: Rubus idaeus ‘Willamette’, Lyc ium barbarum , Amelanchier canadensis ‘Rainbow Pillar’, Ribes nigrum ‘Tisel’, cherry rootstock ‘Gisela 5’ ( Prunus cerasus × P. canescens ), Drosera capillaris , Drosera rotundifolia , and

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Stanislaw Pluta and Agata Broniarek-Niemiec

Field resistance to white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fischer) was investigated on 53 black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) genotypes (cultivars and breeding selections) in 1998 and 1999. Uredia did not form on the black currant `Titania' and 17 advanced selections during field evaluations made at the Experimental Orchard at Dabrowice, near Skierniewice, Poland.

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Margie Luffman

The search for appropriate white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) resistant germplasm to use in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) breeding programs began in 1935 in Ottawa. Crosses were made in 1938 and 1939 with three different Ribes L. species and two standard black currant cultivars. The resulting seedlings from these crosses were evaluated for rust resistance. Three promising selections resulted from this program and were named `Coronet', `Crusader' and `Consort'.

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Adam Dale

Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) plants of eight varieties were grown either through black plastic mulch or in bare soil and with the area between the rows cultivated or sodded with red fescue (Festuca rubra L.). Over 6 years, black plastic mulch increased yields by 26% over no mulch and cultivation between the rows increased yield by 32% compared to sod. The effect of both treatments was additive, cultivation and black plastic increased yield by 68% over grass and no black plastic. Growers are recommended to plant black currants through black plastic and avoid using sod between the rows.

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R.S. Hunt and G.D. Jensen

For the white pine blister rust disease (WPBR), reports conflict concerning the time of year the pathogen, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., infects western white pine (Pinus monticola D. Don) and what needle age increments are most susceptible. To determine timing of infection, western white pine seedling were placed under infected currants (Ribes nigrum L.) for 1-week periods from May to November. Needles became spotted and stems cankered after exposure to diseased currants from early summer until leaf drop in November. To determine what foliage age increment was most susceptible, 5-year-old seedlings were placed in a disease garden, and older trees were inoculated in situ. All age increments of pine foliage were susceptible to infection. For young seedlings, all age increments were about equally susceptible, but on some older seedlings and trees, the current year's foliage appeared more resistant than older foliage.

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Paul J. Zambino

Artificially inoculated single-leaf cuttings and small plants consistently differentiated european black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) cultivars susceptible to white pine blister rust (WPBR; Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) from immune cultivars carrying the Cr resistance gene. Black currant cultivars Consort, Crusader, and Titania showed no signs of infection with any of 21 strains of WPBR, suggesting that strains able to overcome immunity conferred by the Cr resistance gene, if they exist, are uncommon in North America. However, in red currant (Ribes rubrum L.), two sources of material presumed to represent the immune cultivar Viking showed no resistance to infection. All rust strains infected and sporulated as if the cultivar were fully susceptible, casting doubt on the true identity of available sources of `Viking'.