rotundus ) density and nitrogen rate on radish ( Raphanus sativus ) yield Weed Sci. 46 661 664 Schueneman, T.J. Sanchez, C.A. 1994 Vegetable production in the EAA, p. 238–277. In: A.B. Bottcher and F.T. Izuno (eds.). Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA
Dennis C. Odero, Jose V. Fernandez, and Nikol Havranek
Yusuke Kubo, Shinobu Satoh, Haruka Suzuki, Toshinori Kinoshita, and Nobuyoshi Nakajima
) cell growth on the abaxial side, causing curling. Materials and Methods Plant materials and growth conditions. Seeds of Japanese radish ( Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus ) were purchased from Nakahara Seed Product Co., Ltd. (Fukuoka, Japan). We
Yau-Wen Yang, Pai-Yean Tai, and Ying Chen
There are two evolutionary pathways in the genus of Brassica, one is rapa/oleracea lineage and the other is nigra lineage. Based on the morphological characteristics and nuclear RAPD or RFLP markers, genus Raphanus was thought more closely related to nigra lineage than to rapa/oleracea lineage (Song et al., 1990; Thormann et al., 1994). RFLP data of both chloroplast and mitochondria revealed that Raphanus is more closely related to rapa/oleracea lineage (Palmer and Herbon, 1988; Warwick and Black, 1991; Pradhan et al., 1992). We have previously demonstrated that Raphanus sativus is more closely related to nigra lineage using nuclear intergenic spacer between 5S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer region between 18S and 25S rDNA. In this study, we analyzed DNA sequences from different regions of chloroplast and showed that Raphanus sativus was closely related to rapa/oleracea lineage than to nigra lineage. These results suggest that Raphanus sativus is a hybrid between B. rapa/oleracea and B nigra lineages as proposed by Song et al (1990). The split time between these two lineages and the divergent time of Raphanus was also determined based on these chloroplast DNA sequences.
R.M. Warner, J.E. Erwin, and A.G. Smith
Previous research indicated that Raphanus sativus L. `Chinese Radish Jumbo Scarlet' (CJRS) has an obligate vernalization requirement for flowering and can be vernalized as an imbibed seed in less than 10 days at 6 °C. For these reasons, it serves as an excellent model system for vernalization studies. This study was initiated to gain an understanding of the interaction between cold duration, exogenously applied GA3, and photoperiod on R. sativus CJRS flowering. R. sativus CJRS seeds were sown in 90-mm petri plates on Whatman no. 1 filter paper saturated with plain water or a solution containing 10-5 M or 10-3 M GA3. After germination (i.e., when the radicle was visible), seedlings were either directly transplanted into 10-cm pots and placed in a greenhouse, or transferred to another petri plate onto filter paper saturated with water only and placed in a growth chamber at 6 °C (75 μmol•m-2•s-1 for 8 h) for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 days. Greenhouse conditions were: 20 °C, ambient light (December to January, St. Paul, Minn.) plus 70 μmol•m-2•s-1 supplemental light (high-pressure sodium lamps, 0830-1630 hr), under either an 8-h photoperiod (covered with opaque cloth from 1630-0830 hr), or ambient photoperiod plus night-interruption lighting (2 μmol•m-2•s-1, using incandescent lamps, 2200-0200 HR). Results will be presented.
Shisheng Li, Qiufang Xiong, Jingcai Li, Yuanping Fang, and Jun Xiang
Radish ( Raphanus sativus L., 2 n = 18) has tuberous roots and is consumed globally. Breeders have developed different types of radish, including oil radish, silique radish, and leafy radish. Radish is a particularly important vegetable crop in
Brian A. Kahn, Niels O. Maness, Donna R. Chrz, and Lynda K. Carrier
significantly affecting the concentrations of ascorbic acid, glutathione, and capsaicinoids ( Pascual et al., 2010 ). Pungency is a major determinant of quality in radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) storage roots. The pungent principle of radish storage roots was
T.J.K. Radovich*, J.G. Streeter, P.P. Ling, and M.D. Kleinhenz
Clarifying the influence of abiotic environmental factors on the glucosinolate-myrosinase complex in vegetables of the Brassicaceae is an important step in understanding physiological processes that affect crop quality. Previous related work in this lab has shown that irrigation timing in the field may influence physical-, chemical- and sensory-based indicators of cabbage quality. The objective of this study was to record glucosinolate concentrations and myrosinase activity in crop tissues from plants subjected to varying soil moisture levels, employing radish as a model. Plants of cv. Belle Glade were grown in a controlled environment system designed at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center in Wooster, Ohio for maintenance of target soil moisture levels. Pots were maintained at three soil moisture ranges, 40% to 60% (A), 20% to 30% (B) and 10% to 20% (C) volumetric soil moisture content at 30 °C. Preliminary observations revealed that treatments A, B and C corresponded to soil tensions which were not stressful, moderately stressful, and severely stressful to plants, respectively. Pot evapotranspiration, leaf stomatal conductance and plant size followed the order A>B>C, while canopy temperatures followed the order C>B>A. In leaves, glucosinolate concentrations and myrosinase activity were about 15% greater in treatments B and C than in A, while glucosinolate levels and myrosinase activity were 28 and 50% lower in hypocotyls and roots, respectively, in C than in A. It is hypothesized that changes in enzyme and substrate synthesis and translocation within the plant in response to sub-optimal soil moisture levels may explain the differential response of tissue glucosinolate concentrations and myrosinase activity to soil moisture treatments.
Bielinski M. Santos and Jose Pablo Morales-Payan
Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the tolerance of two radish cultivars to soil-applied B, Mo, and Zn. Sources used were boric acid (0, 54, 108, 216, 324, and 432 ppm), molybdic acid (0, 1.4, 2.8, 5.6, 8.5, and 11.3 ppm), and zinc sulfate (0, 40, 80, 160, 240, and 360 ppm) applied at planting in addition to the control. Plants were grown in plastic containers of 1.5 L, filled with a potting medium composed of 50% vermiculite, 30% sphagnum peat, and 20% perlite. Treatments were arranged within a randomized complete block design with six replications. Fresh weight of commercial roots was not affected by Mo or Zn applications in either cultivar. However, B applications decreased root fresh weight as rate increased. These results suggest that these radish cultivars perform well in a relatively wide range of Mo and Zn application rates, whereas tolerance to B appears to be low.
Su-Hyoung Park, Ki-Taek Kim, Sun-Hyoung Lim, Moo-Kyoung Yoon, Soo-Seong Lee, Changhoo Chun, and Hyo-Geun Park
Self-incompatibility (SI) in Brassicaceae vegetables prevents self-pollination by recognizing self-pollens and rejecting them at the stigmatic surfaces. The S-haplotypes of 47 hybrid radish cultivars that are commercially available in Korea were classified and identified using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Twelve kinds of S-haplotypes were identified from the cultivars: S 1 , S 8 , S 11 , S 17 , S 18 , S 30, and S 31 haplotypes in class-I S-haplotype and S 4 , S 5 , S 13 , S 21, and S 26 haplotypes in class-II S-haplotypes. Even though the class-II S-haplotypes are supposed to exhibit weak and/or leaky SI activity, the class-II S-haplotypes showed the same allele frequency of class-I S-haplotypes in 38 fully classified commercial cultivars. The SI activity was examined using the pollen tube germination test, flower pollination test, and the seed set ratio analysis. The pollen tube test showed low correlation (R 2 = 0.13) with the flower pollination test, a conventional method. The results of seed set ratio analysis varied from 0% to 159%, and thus could distinguish the weak and strong SI activity clearly and showed high correlation with the flower pollination test (R 2 = 0.69). The seed set ratios of the cultivars possessing the class-I/class-I, class-I/class-II, and class-II/class-II genotypes were 0.6%, 17.4%, and 38.1%, respectively. Among the eight class-II/class-II cultivars, three cultivars showed strong SI activity. The SI activity of the S 4 S 17 , S 5 S 8, and S 4 S 26 genotypes varied among cultivars, but the S 1 S 17 , S 5 S 17, and S 8 S 26 genotypes showed constant strong, intermediate, and strong activity, respectively, among the cultivars. Results indicate that the SI activity of Brassicaceae vegetables depends not only on the S-haplotypes, but also on the genetic background of cultivars.
Wei-Ling Chen, Cheng-Hung Hsiao, and Hsueh-Shih Lin
The radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), a temperate annual crop of the Cruciferae family originating from East Asia and the Mediterranean, is a popular vegetable worldwide and is rich in iron, calcium, and vitamin B ( Kitamura, 1958 ). It has been