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David J. Norman, Qi Huang, Jeanne M.F. Yuen, Arianna Mangravita-Novo and Drew Byrne

during early stages of propagation. Therefore, geranium propagation is outsourced to countries with low labor costs. Endemic populations of Ralstonia solanacearum (Yabuuchi et al., 1996), the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease, exist in most of

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Mathews L. Paret, Asoka S. de Silva, Richard A. Criley and Anne M. Alvarez

Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum , causes severe wilt in many crops and is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of the world ( Hayward, 1991 , 1994 ; Kelman, 1953 ). Ralstonia solanacearum is

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Yutaka Mimura, Masami Yoshikawa and Masashi Hirai

Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious disease in a wide range of crops. The bacteria enter the plants from roots in the natural process of infection ( Vasse et al., 1995 ). After a phase of intercellular growth, bacteria

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Mathews L. Paret, Ryo Kubota, Daniel M. Jenkins and Anne M. Alvarez

( Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 2010 ). One of the major production constraints of edible ginger is bacterial wilt disease ( Fig. 1B ) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum . Major crop losses due to the disease have been reported

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Adam F. Wimer, Steven L. Rideout and Joshua H. Freeman

About 4500 acres of fresh market tomato are grown annually on the ESV ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2009 ). Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum , is an economically important disease of tomato grown on the ESV and throughout the

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Theodore McAvoy, Joshua H. Freeman, Steven L. Rideout, Stephen M. Olson and Mathews L. Paret

combined farm gate value of over $583 million ( USDA-NASS, 2011 ). Bacterial wilt of tomato caused by the soilborne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 (biovar 1, phylotype II) is widely distributed in the southeastern United States and causes

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David H Suchoff, Frank J. Louws and Christopher C. Gunter

United States, which has a total value of $699 million. Ralstonia solanacearum race 1 is an economically devastating soilborne pathogen that affects tomato throughout the southeastern United States ( Ji et al., 2007 ; McAvoy et al., 2012 ). Soil

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Cary L. Rivard and Frank J. Louws

oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici , Meloidogyne spp., Ralstonia solanacearum (formerly Pseudomonas solanacearum ), and Verticillium dahliae can lead to dramatic decreases in yield and are difficult to manage, especially in intensive organic production

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J.D. Cheung, Y.S. Cha and B.S. Kim

Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is sporadically causing damage to pepper in Korea. We put efforts in analyzing the genetics of resistance to bacterial wilt and in subsequent breeding for resistance by selection. Two Korean cultivars, Subi and Chilsung, were crossed with a resistant source, MC-4, which was kindly provided by Lopes in Brazil. In addition, four breeding lines bred for resistance to Phytophthora blight were crossed with another resistance source, PBC631, which we received from AVRDC. F2 and backcross populations of the crosses were developed and tested by inoculation by dipping the roots of the seedlings before transplanting 25 days after seeding. Segregation in the F2 and backcross populations did not fit any mode of simple Mendelian inheritance, but appeared inheriting in a quantitative mode with relatively low heritability. Selection was practiced in the subsequent F3, BC1F2, F4, and BC1F3 generations and a few resistant selections were obtained.

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H. Yamazaki, S. Kikuchi, T. Hoshina and T. Kimura

To control bacterial wilt of tomato, grafting with resistant rootstocks widely prevails in Japan, but the disease has recently occurred even on grafted plants. Concerning this breakdown of resistance, the experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of Ca nutrition on disease development and latent infection of bacterial wilt in grafted tomato seedlings. Three levels of Ca (0.4, 4.4, or 20.4 mm) in a nutrient solution were applied to grafted seedlings (scion: `Momotarou', resistant rootstock: `Hawaii 7998') grown in a phytotron. One week after the Ca treatment, seedlings were inoculated with a 108 cfu/ml suspension of Ralstonia solanacearum by a stem puncture at the basal stem of the rootstock. The disease incidence was recorded for 21 days. In a second experiment, xylem exudates were collected from decapitated scions of the Ca-treated seedlings 5 days after inoculation. Populations of the pathogen in the exudates were counted by plating on a selective medium. Colonies isolated were reinoculated to susceptible seedlings to check the virulence. The high Ca treatment increased leaf and stem Ca contents, and significantly reduced the disease incidence. While Ca concentrations in the xylem exudates increased with the high Ca treatment, the populations of the pathogen in the exudates were high (>109 cfu/ml) even at the high Ca treatment. All the colonies isolated were virulent. These results showed that grafted tomato seedlings treated with a high Ca concentration were highly resistant to bacterial wilt, but latently infected.